Developmental phase alters dosimetry-teratogenicity relationship for 2-methoxyethanol in CD-1 mice.Teratology. 1994 Mar; 49(3):218-27.T
The industrial solvent 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) elicits phase-specific terata in mice through its primary metabolite and proximate toxicant, 2-methoxyacetic acid (2-MAA). Recent pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the incidence and severity of digit malformations induced in CD-1 mice by 2-ME exposure on gestation day (gd) 11 (copulation plug = gd 0) correlate better with the total 2-MAA exposure over time (= area under the curve; AUC) than with its peak concentrations (Cmax) in maternal plasma, embryo and extraembryonic fluid. In this study, the phase specificity of exencephaly induction by 2-ME was investigated to ascertain whether the 2-ME/2-MAA dosimetry-teratogenicity relationship remains consistent throughout organogenesis. Following a single intravenous (iv) bolus dose of 250 mg 2-ME/kg given to pregnant mice, exposure on gd 8 was decidedly the gestation day that best balanced low embryo lethality and high malformation incidence as recorded in near-term fetuses. Concentrations of 2-MAA were measured during distribution and elimination in maternal plasma and conceptuses following iv bolus doses of 175, 250, and 325 mg 2-ME/kg, as well as during and after termination of subcutaneous (sc) constant-rate infusion (4, 6, and 8 hr; 8 microliters/hr) of 277, 392, and 606 mg 2-ME/kg total doses. For all administration regimens, exencephaly incidence rates were determined in fetuses on gd 18. Similar plasma 2-MAA Cmax values (approximately 5 mmol/l) and fetal malformation frequencies (approximately 12%) were induced by sc infusion of 392 mg 2-ME/kg or a bolus dose of 250 mg 2-ME/kg. However, the AUC produced by infusion was significantly larger than that following the iv bolus dose (38 vs. 26 mmol.hr/l, respectively). In both maternal plasma and conceptuses, the correlation coefficients between Cmax and exencephaly rates, as well as developmental toxicity, were higher than they were for AUC and those end points. This outcome suggests that dosimetry-teratogenicity determinants may be quite specific for a distinct developmental phase during which a particular organ differentiates and a specific chemical acts upon the embryo.