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The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally.
J Clin Invest. 1975 Jul; 56(1):127-34.JCI

Abstract

The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube. EFA deficiency was detected by decreases in linoleic acid and by the appearance of 5, 8, 11-eicosatrienoic acid in lipid fractions of plasma. Linoleic acid decreased significantly during 2 wk of the fat-free diet given intravenously from 48.8 to 9.8% (percent of total fatty acids) in cholesterol esters, from 21.2 to 3.2% in phospholipids, from 9.6 to 2.0% in free fatty acids, and from 14.1 to 2.6% in triglycerides. Eicosatrienoic acid, normally undetectable, appeared 0.6% in cholesterol esters, 2.5% in phospholipids, 0.2% in free fatty acids, and 2.3% in triglycerides. EFA deficiency occurred similarly during the nasogastric feeding. In Study II a subject received the same diet continuously by the nasogastric route for 10 days followed by a 24-h fast. He was then given the fat-free diet intermittently in three meals per day for 3 days. Finally, he was repleted with a diet containing 2.6% linoleic acid. By the 3rd day of the continuous nasogastric feeding, linoleic acid had fallen significantly and eicosatrienoic acid had appeared in plasma lipid fractions as in Study I. These findings were accentuated by day 10. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition did not change. Free fatty acid outflow from adipose tissue was presumably suppressed during the 10 days of continuous feeding. With increased free fatty acid outflow during fasting and intermittent feeding, linoleic acid rose and eicosatrienoic acid decreased. After 13 days of repletion with dietary linoleic acid, the EFA deficiency readily develops when fat-free diets containing glucose are given intravenously or orally as constant 24-h infusions. These diets are similar to the hyperalimentation formulas now being used clinically.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

806609

Citation

Wene, J D., et al. "The Development of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Healthy Men Fed Fat-free Diets Intravenously and Orally." The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 56, no. 1, 1975, pp. 127-34.
Wene JD, Connor WE, DenBesten L. The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally. J Clin Invest. 1975;56(1):127-34.
Wene, J. D., Connor, W. E., & DenBesten, L. (1975). The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 56(1), 127-34.
Wene JD, Connor WE, DenBesten L. The Development of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Healthy Men Fed Fat-free Diets Intravenously and Orally. J Clin Invest. 1975;56(1):127-34. PubMed PMID: 806609.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally. AU - Wene,J D, AU - Connor,W E, AU - DenBesten,L, PY - 1975/7/1/pubmed PY - 1975/7/1/medline PY - 1975/7/1/entrez SP - 127 EP - 34 JF - The Journal of clinical investigation JO - J Clin Invest VL - 56 IS - 1 N2 - The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube. EFA deficiency was detected by decreases in linoleic acid and by the appearance of 5, 8, 11-eicosatrienoic acid in lipid fractions of plasma. Linoleic acid decreased significantly during 2 wk of the fat-free diet given intravenously from 48.8 to 9.8% (percent of total fatty acids) in cholesterol esters, from 21.2 to 3.2% in phospholipids, from 9.6 to 2.0% in free fatty acids, and from 14.1 to 2.6% in triglycerides. Eicosatrienoic acid, normally undetectable, appeared 0.6% in cholesterol esters, 2.5% in phospholipids, 0.2% in free fatty acids, and 2.3% in triglycerides. EFA deficiency occurred similarly during the nasogastric feeding. In Study II a subject received the same diet continuously by the nasogastric route for 10 days followed by a 24-h fast. He was then given the fat-free diet intermittently in three meals per day for 3 days. Finally, he was repleted with a diet containing 2.6% linoleic acid. By the 3rd day of the continuous nasogastric feeding, linoleic acid had fallen significantly and eicosatrienoic acid had appeared in plasma lipid fractions as in Study I. These findings were accentuated by day 10. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition did not change. Free fatty acid outflow from adipose tissue was presumably suppressed during the 10 days of continuous feeding. With increased free fatty acid outflow during fasting and intermittent feeding, linoleic acid rose and eicosatrienoic acid decreased. After 13 days of repletion with dietary linoleic acid, the EFA deficiency readily develops when fat-free diets containing glucose are given intravenously or orally as constant 24-h infusions. These diets are similar to the hyperalimentation formulas now being used clinically. SN - 0021-9738 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/806609/The_development_of_essential_fatty_acid_deficiency_in_healthy_men_fed_fat_free_diets_intravenously_and_orally_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI108061 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -