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Determinants of resting energy expenditure in young children.

Abstract

Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults is influenced by fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), and is significantly higher in men than in women. There are limited data, however, on the physiologic determinants of REE in children. We therefore measured REE in 113 prepubertal children (39 white girls, 41 white boys, 21 Mohawk girls, and 12 Mohawk boys), 3.9 to 7.8 years of age, representing a wide range of body weight (14.7 to 34.0 kg), height (0.97 to 1.30 m), FFM (10.3 to 25.0 kg), and FM (1.7 to 13.7 kg; 9.4% to 40.3%). The REE was measured in duplicate by indirect calorimetry (range, 830 to 1405 kcal/day) while the children were in a postprandial state and viewing a cartoon film. The FM and FFM values were determined by bioelectrical resistance by means of the Kushner equation. In stepwise regression analysis, the combination of FFM (p < 0.001; partial r = 0.77), sex (p = 0.001; partial r = 0.12), and FM (p = 0.01; partial r = 0.16) explained 63% of the variation in REE. The regression coefficients were 31.9 kcal/kg FFM, 53 kcal for boys, 0 for girls, and 13 kcal/kg FM. Mohawk background, age, fat distribution, heart rate, and physical activity were not independently associated with REE. After REE was adjusted for the aforementioned significant factors, there were no significant correlations with parental factors (body composition, physical activity, age, and REE) other than normalized maternal REE (r = 0.19; p = 0.05). We conclude that the effects of FFM, sex, and FM on REE in children are similar to those in adults. The higher REE in young boys suggests that the previously reported higher REE in adult men cannot be explained entirely by differences in sex hormones. Finally, our data do not support the hypothesis that REE in children is negatively influenced by obesity in children or in parents.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham 35294.

    ,

    Source

    The Journal of pediatrics 125:3 1994 Sep pg 362-7

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Adult
    Body Composition
    Body Height
    Body Mass Index
    Body Weight
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Cohort Studies
    Energy Metabolism
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Humans
    Indians, North American
    Male
    Middle Aged
    New York
    Parents
    Rest
    Sex Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    8071742

    Citation

    Goran, M I., et al. "Determinants of Resting Energy Expenditure in Young Children." The Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 125, no. 3, 1994, pp. 362-7.
    Goran MI, Kaskoun M, Johnson R. Determinants of resting energy expenditure in young children. J Pediatr. 1994;125(3):362-7.
    Goran, M. I., Kaskoun, M., & Johnson, R. (1994). Determinants of resting energy expenditure in young children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 125(3), pp. 362-7.
    Goran MI, Kaskoun M, Johnson R. Determinants of Resting Energy Expenditure in Young Children. J Pediatr. 1994;125(3):362-7. PubMed PMID: 8071742.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Determinants of resting energy expenditure in young children. AU - Goran,M I, AU - Kaskoun,M, AU - Johnson,R, PY - 1994/9/1/pubmed PY - 1994/9/1/medline PY - 1994/9/1/entrez SP - 362 EP - 7 JF - The Journal of pediatrics JO - J. Pediatr. VL - 125 IS - 3 N2 - Resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults is influenced by fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), and is significantly higher in men than in women. There are limited data, however, on the physiologic determinants of REE in children. We therefore measured REE in 113 prepubertal children (39 white girls, 41 white boys, 21 Mohawk girls, and 12 Mohawk boys), 3.9 to 7.8 years of age, representing a wide range of body weight (14.7 to 34.0 kg), height (0.97 to 1.30 m), FFM (10.3 to 25.0 kg), and FM (1.7 to 13.7 kg; 9.4% to 40.3%). The REE was measured in duplicate by indirect calorimetry (range, 830 to 1405 kcal/day) while the children were in a postprandial state and viewing a cartoon film. The FM and FFM values were determined by bioelectrical resistance by means of the Kushner equation. In stepwise regression analysis, the combination of FFM (p < 0.001; partial r = 0.77), sex (p = 0.001; partial r = 0.12), and FM (p = 0.01; partial r = 0.16) explained 63% of the variation in REE. The regression coefficients were 31.9 kcal/kg FFM, 53 kcal for boys, 0 for girls, and 13 kcal/kg FM. Mohawk background, age, fat distribution, heart rate, and physical activity were not independently associated with REE. After REE was adjusted for the aforementioned significant factors, there were no significant correlations with parental factors (body composition, physical activity, age, and REE) other than normalized maternal REE (r = 0.19; p = 0.05). We conclude that the effects of FFM, sex, and FM on REE in children are similar to those in adults. The higher REE in young boys suggests that the previously reported higher REE in adult men cannot be explained entirely by differences in sex hormones. Finally, our data do not support the hypothesis that REE in children is negatively influenced by obesity in children or in parents. SN - 0022-3476 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8071742/Determinants_of_resting_energy_expenditure_in_young_children_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-3476(05)83277-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -