The relations between cervical cancer and serological markers of nutritional status.Nutr Cancer. 1994; 21(3):193-201.NC
We evaluated whether differences in serological nutrient indicators between cases and controls were likely to be due to different usual levels for cases or to altered metabolism due to disease. Blood samples obtained as part of a case-control study of invasive cervical cancer conducted in Latin America were evaluated for case-control differences and for trends with stage of disease. Serum alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol showed no trend with extent of disease, although Stage IV cases had lower alpha- and beta-carotene values than did other cases. A slight trend of decreasing values with stage was observed for serum retinol, lycopene, and lutein. For cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, an inverse trend was observed with stage of disease, which suggested a clinical effect of the disease on blood lipids. Adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, or oral contraceptive use did not alter observed relations, nor was there evidence that the altered blood nutrient levels differed by histological type. These data suggest that serum values for some carotenoids from Stage I, II, and III cervical cancer are suitable for etiological studies, but spurious results may be obtained if late-stage cases are included. Evidence of trends with severity of disease for cholesterol and triglycerides, and possibly for retinol, lycopene, and lutein, suggest that special attention be given to disease effects of these nutrients in studies of cervical cancer.