Duodenal gastrinomas, duodenotomy, and duodenal exploration in the surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.World J Surg. 1993 Jul-Aug; 17(4):455-62.WJ
Studies have shown that the duodenum is a more common site (30-40%) of primary gastrinomas than previously reported. These tumors are often occult to conventional exploration, and their detection requires duodenotomy and meticulous evaluation of the mucosa by eversion and direct palpation. Furthermore, tumors as small as 1 to 2 mm may be associated with lymph node metastases. Seven patients with duodenal gastrinomas treated during a 2-year period are reported. Four had sporadic Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), and three had multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I) syndrome. All seven patients had malignant duodenal gastrinomas as proved by metastatic lymph nodes and in one case a large liver metastasis as well. Local excision of the tumor, lymph node excisions, and in one case liver lobectomy resulted in eugastrinemia in the 4 with sporadic ZES. Two of the three with MEN-I were also eugastrinemic after similar procedures, with the addition of distal pancreatectomy. Duodenotomy is considered an essential procedure in sporadic ZES patients when no pancreatic tumor is found and in all MEN-I/ZES patients, regardless of the pancreatic findings. Regional lymph node excisions are essential when a duodenal tumor has been found.