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Effect of dietary N-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Mar; 35(3):794-803.IO

Abstract

PURPOSE

To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids.

METHODS

From birth, infant monkeys were fed either a control soybean oil diet, containing 8% of total fatty acids as 18:3 (n-3), or a safflower oil-based n-3 fatty acid deficient diet containing < 0.4% 18:3 (n-3). A subset of the n-3 deficient group was later repleted with 1.6% ethyl docosahexaenoate, 22:6 (n-3), starting at 10 months of age. Tissues were taken from all monkeys upon termination at 21 to 51 months of age. The diacyl, alkenylacyl, and alkylacyl EGPs were quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).

RESULTS

Twenty-eight molecular species were identified in the retina of control monkeys. Ether phospholipids comprised 36% of the retinal ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. Species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (dipolyenes) were present only in the diacyl subclass and comprised 16% of the total species. Species having n-3 fatty acids in the sn-2 position contributed 59%, 36%, and 70% of total species in the diacyl, alkenylacyl, and alkylacyl subclasses, respectively. In the molecular species of the n-3 fatty acid deficient monkeys, the major change was the loss of most of the 18:0-22:6(n-3) species and its partial replacement with 18:0-22:5(n-6). In contrast, the species 18:1-22:6(n-3) decreased only slightly, from 6.2% to 4.8% of total diacyl species. Although the total concentration of dipolyenes (15% to 20% of the total species) was not affected by diet, their fatty acid compositions were changed drastically. The dipolyene species 22:6(n-3)-22:6(n-3) nearly disappeared in the n-3 deficient monkeys. Concomitantly, two new species, 22:5(n-6)-22:6(n-3) and 22:5(n-6)-22:5(n-6), appeared at 2.6% and 2.0%, respectively. Deficient monkeys given the ethyl ester of 22:6(n-3) in the diet recovered to a near-normal molecular species composition, except in the ether lipids, in which 16:0-20:4 remained low.

CONCLUSION

Diets of differing n-3 fatty acid content had profound qualitative and quantitative effects on the molecular species of retinal phospholipids, and the replacement of 22:6(n-3) by 22:5(n-6) in the retinas of n-3 deficient monkeys was asymmetric and functionally incomplete.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Section of Clinical Nutrition and Lipid Metabolism, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8125741

Citation

Lin, D S., et al. "Effect of Dietary N-3 Fatty Acids Upon the Phospholipid Molecular Species of the Monkey Retina." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 35, no. 3, 1994, pp. 794-803.
Lin DS, Anderson GJ, Connor WE, et al. Effect of dietary N-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35(3):794-803.
Lin, D. S., Anderson, G. J., Connor, W. E., & Neuringer, M. (1994). Effect of dietary N-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 35(3), 794-803.
Lin DS, et al. Effect of Dietary N-3 Fatty Acids Upon the Phospholipid Molecular Species of the Monkey Retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994;35(3):794-803. PubMed PMID: 8125741.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of dietary N-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. AU - Lin,D S, AU - Anderson,G J, AU - Connor,W E, AU - Neuringer,M, PY - 1994/3/1/pubmed PY - 1994/3/1/medline PY - 1994/3/1/entrez SP - 794 EP - 803 JF - Investigative ophthalmology & visual science JO - Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. VL - 35 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. METHODS: From birth, infant monkeys were fed either a control soybean oil diet, containing 8% of total fatty acids as 18:3 (n-3), or a safflower oil-based n-3 fatty acid deficient diet containing < 0.4% 18:3 (n-3). A subset of the n-3 deficient group was later repleted with 1.6% ethyl docosahexaenoate, 22:6 (n-3), starting at 10 months of age. Tissues were taken from all monkeys upon termination at 21 to 51 months of age. The diacyl, alkenylacyl, and alkylacyl EGPs were quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Twenty-eight molecular species were identified in the retina of control monkeys. Ether phospholipids comprised 36% of the retinal ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. Species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions (dipolyenes) were present only in the diacyl subclass and comprised 16% of the total species. Species having n-3 fatty acids in the sn-2 position contributed 59%, 36%, and 70% of total species in the diacyl, alkenylacyl, and alkylacyl subclasses, respectively. In the molecular species of the n-3 fatty acid deficient monkeys, the major change was the loss of most of the 18:0-22:6(n-3) species and its partial replacement with 18:0-22:5(n-6). In contrast, the species 18:1-22:6(n-3) decreased only slightly, from 6.2% to 4.8% of total diacyl species. Although the total concentration of dipolyenes (15% to 20% of the total species) was not affected by diet, their fatty acid compositions were changed drastically. The dipolyene species 22:6(n-3)-22:6(n-3) nearly disappeared in the n-3 deficient monkeys. Concomitantly, two new species, 22:5(n-6)-22:6(n-3) and 22:5(n-6)-22:5(n-6), appeared at 2.6% and 2.0%, respectively. Deficient monkeys given the ethyl ester of 22:6(n-3) in the diet recovered to a near-normal molecular species composition, except in the ether lipids, in which 16:0-20:4 remained low. CONCLUSION: Diets of differing n-3 fatty acid content had profound qualitative and quantitative effects on the molecular species of retinal phospholipids, and the replacement of 22:6(n-3) by 22:5(n-6) in the retinas of n-3 deficient monkeys was asymmetric and functionally incomplete. SN - 0146-0404 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8125741/Effect_of_dietary_N_3_fatty_acids_upon_the_phospholipid_molecular_species_of_the_monkey_retina_ L2 - https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?volume=35&amp;issue=3&amp;page=794 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -