The influence of dietary factors on the risk of urinary stone formation.Scanning Microsc. 1993 Sep; 7(3):1119-27; discussion 1127-8.SM
The action of various beverages and foods on the composition of the urine in the circadian rhythm and in the 24-hour urine has been investigated under standardized conditions. Orange juice leads to a significant increase of urinary pH and citric acid excretion. Black tea leads to a raised excretion of oxalic acid by only 7.9%. In the short term, beer increases diuresis, but afterwards leads to a compensatory antidiuresis with increased risk of stone formation. Depending on their composition, mineral waters have very different effects on the urinary constituents. Milk as well as cocoa beverage significantly increase calcium excretion; moreover, cocoa causes an increase in the oxalic acid excretion. The leafy vegetable foods containing oxalate, e.g., spinach and rhubarb, lead to peaks of oxalate excretion of 300-400% in the circadian excretion curve. Cheese leads to a significant rise of calcium excretion with acidification of the urine and lowering of citrate excretion. Calcium excretion is increased by 30% by sodium chloride. Foods containing purine result in an increased uric acid excretion over several days. Depending on their phytic acid content, brans bind calcium, but lead to an increased oxalic acid excretion. Analysis of the urine indicates that average diet in Germany entails a high risk of urinary stone formation. As a result of the change to a balanced mixed or vegetarian diet, according to the requirements, significant alterations in urinary pH, calcium, magnesium, uric acid, citric acid, cystine, and glycosaminoglycan excretion are measured, resulting in a drastic reduction in the risk of urinary stone formation.