Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease in England and Wales, 1980-92.Epidemiol Infect. 1994 Apr; 112(2):329-45.EI
Two hundred and eighteen nosocomial cases of Legionnaires' disease with 68 deaths were reported to the National Surveillance Scheme for Legionnaires Disease between 1980 and 1992, representing 15% of the reported infections acquired in England and Wales. Twenty-two nosocomial outbreaks accounted for 135 (62%) of these cases, the remainder occurring as single cases either in hospitals where other single cases or outbreaks had been reported in different years or as 'sporadic' cases in hospitals from which no other cases were reported. A clinical history prior to onset of Legionnaires' disease was available for 124 patients, 61 of whom had undergone recent transplant therapy or were immunosuppressed for other reasons. Sixty cases (27%) were diagnosed by culture of the organism and isolates from 56 patients were typed; 25 (42%) were non L. pneumophila serogroup 1 infections. Methods for prevention and control of nosocomial outbreaks are discussed, in particular the susceptibility to Legionnaires' disease of certain groups of hospital patients.