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Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Jun; 30(6):944-9.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants.

METHODS

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance).

RESULTS

SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function.

CONCLUSION

We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Lübeck, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8188884

Citation

Wilhelm, K P., et al. "Surfactant-induced Skin Irritation and Skin Repair. Evaluation of the Acute Human Irritation Model By Noninvasive Techniques." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 30, no. 6, 1994, pp. 944-9.
Wilhelm KP, Freitag G, Wolff HH. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(6):944-9.
Wilhelm, K. P., Freitag, G., & Wolff, H. H. (1994). Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 30(6), 944-9.
Wilhelm KP, Freitag G, Wolff HH. Surfactant-induced Skin Irritation and Skin Repair. Evaluation of the Acute Human Irritation Model By Noninvasive Techniques. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;30(6):944-9. PubMed PMID: 8188884.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques. AU - Wilhelm,K P, AU - Freitag,G, AU - Wolff,H H, PY - 1994/6/1/pubmed PY - 1994/6/1/medline PY - 1994/6/1/entrez SP - 944 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology JO - J Am Acad Dermatol VL - 30 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. METHODS: Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). RESULTS: SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. CONCLUSION: We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured. SN - 0190-9622 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8188884/Surfactant_induced_skin_irritation_and_skin_repair__Evaluation_of_the_acute_human_irritation_model_by_noninvasive_techniques_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0190-9622(94)70114-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -