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Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease.
Ann Intern Med 1993; 119(10):1029-35AIM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the relation of obesity and weight loss to the formation of gallstones according to pertinent clinical and research issues.

DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION

Original reports obtained through a MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1992 on gallstones plus obesity or reducing diets, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies, a Current Contents title search from 1991 to 1992 on gallstones and gallbladder, and expert opinion. Only studies of humans were cited.

DATA SYNTHESIS

For women, but less so for men, obesity is a strong risk factor for gallstones, and this risk is increased during weight loss. Between 10% and 25% of obese men and women may develop gallstones within a few months of beginning a very low calorie diet, and perhaps one third of these will develop symptoms of gallstones. Persons with the highest body mass index before weight loss and those who lose weight most rapidly appear to be at the greatest risk for gallstones. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) during weight loss dieting is the only proven prevention for the formation of gallstones. Issues to be resolved include how different diets affect the risk for developing gallstones, the identification of other risk factors for gallstone formation during weight loss, the effect of weight loss among people with preexisting gallstones, and the optimum means of preventing gallstones during weight loss.

CONCLUSIONS

During weight loss, particularly among the obese, an increased risk exists for symptomatic gallstone formation. This acute risk offers the opportunity to investigate the cause of gallstones and possibly to prevent them.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8214980

Citation

Everhart, J E.. "Contributions of Obesity and Weight Loss to Gallstone Disease." Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 119, no. 10, 1993, pp. 1029-35.
Everhart JE. Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(10):1029-35.
Everhart, J. E. (1993). Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 119(10), pp. 1029-35.
Everhart JE. Contributions of Obesity and Weight Loss to Gallstone Disease. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Nov 15;119(10):1029-35. PubMed PMID: 8214980.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Contributions of obesity and weight loss to gallstone disease. A1 - Everhart,J E, PY - 1993/11/15/pubmed PY - 1993/11/15/medline PY - 1993/11/15/entrez SP - 1029 EP - 35 JF - Annals of internal medicine JO - Ann. Intern. Med. VL - 119 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation of obesity and weight loss to the formation of gallstones according to pertinent clinical and research issues. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: Original reports obtained through a MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1992 on gallstones plus obesity or reducing diets, supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies, a Current Contents title search from 1991 to 1992 on gallstones and gallbladder, and expert opinion. Only studies of humans were cited. DATA SYNTHESIS: For women, but less so for men, obesity is a strong risk factor for gallstones, and this risk is increased during weight loss. Between 10% and 25% of obese men and women may develop gallstones within a few months of beginning a very low calorie diet, and perhaps one third of these will develop symptoms of gallstones. Persons with the highest body mass index before weight loss and those who lose weight most rapidly appear to be at the greatest risk for gallstones. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) during weight loss dieting is the only proven prevention for the formation of gallstones. Issues to be resolved include how different diets affect the risk for developing gallstones, the identification of other risk factors for gallstone formation during weight loss, the effect of weight loss among people with preexisting gallstones, and the optimum means of preventing gallstones during weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: During weight loss, particularly among the obese, an increased risk exists for symptomatic gallstone formation. This acute risk offers the opportunity to investigate the cause of gallstones and possibly to prevent them. SN - 0003-4819 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8214980/full_citation L2 - https://www.annals.org/article.aspx?volume=119&issue=10&page=1029 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -