Review of in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety, and clinical efficacy of cefprozil, a new oral cephalosporin.Ann Pharmacother. 1993 Sep; 27(9):1082-9.AP
To review the pharmacokinetics, microbiology, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerance of cefprozil, a new, broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin.
Published clinical trials and microbiologic, pharmacokinetic, and safety data were identified by MEDLINE; additional references were derived from bibliographies of these articles; microbiologic data on file were provided by Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Only published comparative clinical trial reports are included in the review of clinical efficacy. Noncomparative clinical data pertaining to uses of cefprozil not approved by the Food and Drug Administration are not included.
Data are presented on the in vitro microbiologic activity of cefprozil against 10,152 bacterial isolates, including most of the clinically important streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae), beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium difficile, and numerous other gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. In clinical trials, cefprozil appears to be at least as effective as commonly used comparison agents such as cefaclor, cefixime, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Additionally, cefprozil is better tolerated than the latter two agents, especially with regard to gastrointestinal adverse effects.
Cefprozil is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin that provides coverage against both gram-negative and -positive bacteria that may cause otitis media, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, skin and skin-structure infections, secondary bacterial infection of acute bronchitis, and acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The beta-lactamase stability of cefprozil appears to exceed that of other oral cephalosporins for some important pathogens. Cefprozil is used primarily for second-line treatment as less-expensive, first-line generic alternatives generally are available. Cefprozil demonstrates clinical advantages over many other orally administered beta-lactam antibiotics in terms of antimicrobial spectrum, a once- or twice-daily dosing regimen, and/or reduced incidence of adverse effects.