[Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism].Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 01; 43(11):1358-63.RP
Macrocytic megaloblastic anemia is the most typical but the latest sign of a cobalamin (vitamin B12) and/or folic acid deficiency or of a congenital abnormality of cobalamin and folate metabolism. Macrocytosis in blood and megaloblastosis in bone marrow are the morphological features of a disturbance in cell division related to a defect in DNA biosynthesis. Macrocytosis without anemia, normocytic normochronic anemia with a low reticulocyte cell count or microcytic hypochromic anemia in case of associated iron deficiency do not exclude a vitamin deficiency. Neurological or psychiatric disorders and immune abnormalities have been reported in patients with vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies or in children with congenital abnormalities of these 2 vitamins; such manifestations may even occur without anemia.