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Measurement of cocaine and metabolites in urine, meconium, and diapers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1993 Sep-Oct; 23(5):385-94.AC

Abstract

Analytical methods were evaluated for measuring cocaine (CO), benzoylecgonine (BE), and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) in urine and methanolic extracts from meconium and diapers by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Volatile derivatives of the extracted drugs were generated before GC/MS analysis. Methanolic extracts from meconium and diapers were reconstituted in drug-free urine and treated as above. The limit of detection for the GC/MS method was calculated to be approximately 11 ng per mL. Within-run coefficients of variation (CVs) for urinary CO, BE, and EME were 5.7, 5.3, and 11.4 percent, respectively (N = 10); corresponding CVs for meconium 6.4, 10.7, and 21.9 percent (N = 8). Quantitative results were linear from 25 to 10,000 ng per g of meconium and 25 to 5,000 ng per mL of urine. Day-to-day precision varied from eight percent (CV) for BE in refrigerated or frozen urine to 34 percent for EME in refrigerated meconium. Recoveries of CO, BE, and EME from urine were 63, 19, and 42 percent, respectively; corresponding recoveries from meconium were 64, 21, and 25 percent. Cocaine and metabolites were extracted from wet but meconium-free diapers into methanol, which was evaporated before reconstituting in drug-free urine and extraction on a solid phase column. The CO, BE, and EME were detected in previously drug-free meconium after portions were deposited in a diaper which was wet with drug-positive urine. Unless precautions are taken to prevent extracorporeal contamination of meconium with urine, concentrations of CO and metabolites in meconium may be substantially augmented by contamination with urine. Analysis by GC/MS of CO and metabolites extracted from diapers provides an attractive alternative to collection of urine, which is difficult and may cause discomfort for the neonate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville 32610.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8239486

Citation

Lombardero, N, et al. "Measurement of Cocaine and Metabolites in Urine, Meconium, and Diapers By Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry." Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, vol. 23, no. 5, 1993, pp. 385-94.
Lombardero N, Casanova O, Behnke M, et al. Measurement of cocaine and metabolites in urine, meconium, and diapers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1993;23(5):385-94.
Lombardero, N., Casanova, O., Behnke, M., Eyler, F. D., & Bertholf, R. L. (1993). Measurement of cocaine and metabolites in urine, meconium, and diapers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 23(5), 385-94.
Lombardero N, et al. Measurement of Cocaine and Metabolites in Urine, Meconium, and Diapers By Gas Chromatography/mass Spectrometry. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1993 Sep-Oct;23(5):385-94. PubMed PMID: 8239486.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Measurement of cocaine and metabolites in urine, meconium, and diapers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. AU - Lombardero,N, AU - Casanova,O, AU - Behnke,M, AU - Eyler,F D, AU - Bertholf,R L, PY - 1993/9/1/pubmed PY - 1993/9/1/medline PY - 1993/9/1/entrez SP - 385 EP - 94 JF - Annals of clinical and laboratory science JO - Ann Clin Lab Sci VL - 23 IS - 5 N2 - Analytical methods were evaluated for measuring cocaine (CO), benzoylecgonine (BE), and ecgonine methyl ester (EME) in urine and methanolic extracts from meconium and diapers by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Volatile derivatives of the extracted drugs were generated before GC/MS analysis. Methanolic extracts from meconium and diapers were reconstituted in drug-free urine and treated as above. The limit of detection for the GC/MS method was calculated to be approximately 11 ng per mL. Within-run coefficients of variation (CVs) for urinary CO, BE, and EME were 5.7, 5.3, and 11.4 percent, respectively (N = 10); corresponding CVs for meconium 6.4, 10.7, and 21.9 percent (N = 8). Quantitative results were linear from 25 to 10,000 ng per g of meconium and 25 to 5,000 ng per mL of urine. Day-to-day precision varied from eight percent (CV) for BE in refrigerated or frozen urine to 34 percent for EME in refrigerated meconium. Recoveries of CO, BE, and EME from urine were 63, 19, and 42 percent, respectively; corresponding recoveries from meconium were 64, 21, and 25 percent. Cocaine and metabolites were extracted from wet but meconium-free diapers into methanol, which was evaporated before reconstituting in drug-free urine and extraction on a solid phase column. The CO, BE, and EME were detected in previously drug-free meconium after portions were deposited in a diaper which was wet with drug-positive urine. Unless precautions are taken to prevent extracorporeal contamination of meconium with urine, concentrations of CO and metabolites in meconium may be substantially augmented by contamination with urine. Analysis by GC/MS of CO and metabolites extracted from diapers provides an attractive alternative to collection of urine, which is difficult and may cause discomfort for the neonate. SN - 0091-7370 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8239486/Measurement_of_cocaine_and_metabolites_in_urine_meconium_and_diapers_by_gas_chromatography/mass_spectrometry_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -