Dietary sunflower, linseed and fish oils affect phospholipid fatty acid composition, development of cardiac lesions, phospholipase activity and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1993 Sep; 49(3):665-73.PL
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts were fed practical-type diets in which the lipid was supplied either as fish oil (FO), sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LO) for 12 weeks. In general, the heart phospholipids from SFO-fed fish had increased 18:2n-6, 20:2n-6, 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 but decreased 20:5n-3 compared to both other dietary treatments. This was reflected in a decreased n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and an increased 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 or eicosanoid precursor ratio in SFO-fed fish. While heart phospholipids of fish fed LO had increased levels of 18:2n-6, 20:2n-6 and 20:3n-6 compared to fish fed FO, 20:4n-6 levels were reduced, although only significantly in phosphatidylcholine (PC). Dietary-induced changes in phospholipid fatty acid compositions of blood leucocytes were similar to those in heart, although fish fed LO had increased 20:5n-3 compared to fish fed FO. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) produced by stimulated blood cells was reduced in fish fed LO compared to those fed SFO. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was reduced in LO-fed fish compared to both other dietary treatments. Fish fed LO had reduced PC in heart membranes compared to the other two dietary treatments, resulting in a ratio of PC:PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) less than unity. Fish fed SFO developed a marked cardiac histopathology which, while present in FO-fed fish albeit in a less severe form, was virtually absent in fish fed LO. Fish fed SFO had increased heart phospholipase A activity compared to those given either FO or LO.