Interspecific hybridization in Daphnia: distinction and origin of hybrid matrilines.Mol Biol Evol. 1993 Nov; 10(6):1289-302.MB
Three coexisting Daphnia species belonging to the D. longispina group (D. galeata, D. hyalina, and D. cucullata) form species-hybrid complexes by producing interspecific hybrids in several lakes in Germany and The Netherlands. To evaluate the genetic consequences of interspecific hybridization, I studied the patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation. The directionality of interspecific hybridization and divergence of hybrids from parental species was tested, using the DNA sequences of a segment of mtDNA. Via the polymerase chain reaction, it was possible to investigate single animals and even single resting eggs. A species-specific marker was established, using restriction patterns of amplified cytochrome b segments. mtDNA genotypes of hybrids revealed unidirectional mitochondrial gene flow for two hybrids, which were investigated by using multiple clones. No evidence for introgression of mtDNA was found. On the basis of a phylogenetic analysis, the species exhibit considerable distinctness, whereas differences between clones within species and between hybrids and maternal species tend to be very low. These results indicate a recent origin of hybrids and suggest that the radiation of the D. longispina group occurred > 5 Mya.