[Characterization of the biological activities of the 'yellow' and 'white' venoms from Crotalus durissus ruruima compared with the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Neutralizing activity of Crotalus durissus ruruima antivenins].Toxicon. 1993 Nov; 31(11):1459-69.T
The biological activities of 'yellow' and 'white' venom of a rattlesnake Crotalus durissus ruruima Hoge, 1965, found in the savanna-like vegetation (cerrado) of northern Brazil (Roraima) and Venezuela have been studied, and compared to the reference Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. The lethal activity of venoms depended on the inoculation route. The most toxic venom was the white one. The venoms of C. d. terrificus and the yellow of C. d. ruruima had similar lethalities. The yellow venom of C. d. ruruima showed a caseinolytic activity three times higher than that obtained with either the venom of C. d. terrificus or the white one of the C. d. ruruima. Hemorrhagic and necrotic activities were found only in the yellow venom. White and yellow venoms from C. d. ruruima showed a similar action on fibrinogen; this thrombin-like action was greater with C. d. terrificus venom. On histopathological sections local and pulmonary hemorrhage was found only with the yellow venom, but myonecrotic activity was observed with both venoms of C. d. ruruima. Among all antivenoms studied, the anti-bothropic-crotalic was the best at neutralizing hemorrhagic and hemolytic activities. These results suggest that antivenom bothropic-crotalic should be used in the treatment of patients with snakebite by C. d. ruruima: besides its neutralization on lethal activity, it also neutralizes the hemorrhagic activity present in some venoms.