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Combined oral contraceptives: risks and benefits.
Br Med Bull. 1993 Jan; 49(1):124-39.BM

Abstract

By the age of 25 years, more than 95% of sexually active women have been exposed to combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Any effects associated with their use, therefore, carry important public health implications. COCs exert major protective effects against ovarian and endometrial cancer, which continue many years after cessation of use. COCs increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk is probably confined to current users. It is unclear whether lower dose preparations carry less risk. The precise relationship between COC use and risk of breast and cervical cancer is uncertain, although it is clear that COCs do not influence the overall risk of breast cancer. The risk-benefit equation for COC use depends crucially on assumptions about the true breast cancer risk. If there is no increased risk then COCs have a net beneficial effect on mortality, mainly due to the saving in ovarian cancer deaths. However, with more pessimistic assumptions about breast cancer, COCs have an adverse effect. The risk-benefit equation will vary for individual women. Most research has related to the developed world and extrapolation of findings to developing countries is inappropriate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8324603

Citation

Thorogood, M, and L Villard-Mackintosh. "Combined Oral Contraceptives: Risks and Benefits." British Medical Bulletin, vol. 49, no. 1, 1993, pp. 124-39.
Thorogood M, Villard-Mackintosh L. Combined oral contraceptives: risks and benefits. Br Med Bull. 1993;49(1):124-39.
Thorogood, M., & Villard-Mackintosh, L. (1993). Combined oral contraceptives: risks and benefits. British Medical Bulletin, 49(1), 124-39.
Thorogood M, Villard-Mackintosh L. Combined Oral Contraceptives: Risks and Benefits. Br Med Bull. 1993;49(1):124-39. PubMed PMID: 8324603.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combined oral contraceptives: risks and benefits. AU - Thorogood,M, AU - Villard-Mackintosh,L, PY - 1993/1/1/pubmed PY - 1993/1/1/medline PY - 1993/1/1/entrez KW - Biology KW - Breast Cancer KW - Cancer KW - Cardiovascular Effects KW - Cervical Cancer KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developed Countries KW - Diseases KW - Endometrial Cancer KW - Europe KW - Family Planning KW - Health KW - Literature Review KW - Menstruation Disorders KW - Mortality KW - Neoplasms KW - Northern Europe KW - Oral Contraceptives, Combined--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Ovarian Cancer KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Dynamics KW - Public Health KW - Risk Factors KW - United Kingdom SP - 124 EP - 39 JF - British medical bulletin JO - Br. Med. Bull. VL - 49 IS - 1 N2 - By the age of 25 years, more than 95% of sexually active women have been exposed to combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Any effects associated with their use, therefore, carry important public health implications. COCs exert major protective effects against ovarian and endometrial cancer, which continue many years after cessation of use. COCs increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk is probably confined to current users. It is unclear whether lower dose preparations carry less risk. The precise relationship between COC use and risk of breast and cervical cancer is uncertain, although it is clear that COCs do not influence the overall risk of breast cancer. The risk-benefit equation for COC use depends crucially on assumptions about the true breast cancer risk. If there is no increased risk then COCs have a net beneficial effect on mortality, mainly due to the saving in ovarian cancer deaths. However, with more pessimistic assumptions about breast cancer, COCs have an adverse effect. The risk-benefit equation will vary for individual women. Most research has related to the developed world and extrapolation of findings to developing countries is inappropriate. SN - 0007-1420 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8324603/Combined_oral_contraceptives:_risks_and_benefits_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072592 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -