The Butajira project in Ethiopia: a nested case-referent study of under-five mortality and its public health determinants.Bull World Health Organ. 1993; 71(3-4):389-96.BW
During one year of follow-up, 306 deaths of children under the age of 5 years were included in a concurrent case-referent study that was based on a population estimated at 28,780 in 1987. A total of 612 live referents, matched for age, sex and study area, were also selected from the study population through density sampling. Data were collected by lay reporters by verbal autopsy. For the study period the estimated cumulative under-five mortality rate was 293 and the infant (0-11 months old) mortality rate was 136 per 1000. Major probable causes of death were diarrhoeal disease or acute respiratory infections (ARI). The relative importance of parental and environmental characteristics was assessed using conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Under-five mortality was associated with paternal illiteracy, maternal ethnicity, and not being in the committee of people's organizations. Parental factors affected the infants relatively more than they did the children, especially with regard to ARI mortality. This was also noted with "absence of window", a proxy measure for evaluating the type of housing. In terms of etiological fractions a greater number of under-five deaths could be ascribed to parental than environmental conditions, with relatively more infants being affected than children.