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Forensic drug testing for opiates. V. Urine testing for heroin, morphine, and codeine with commercial opiate immunoassays.
J Anal Toxicol. 1993 May-Jun; 17(3):156-64.JA

Abstract

Urine specimens collected after heroin, morphine, and codeine administration were tested by four commercial opiate immunoassays (TDx, CAC, ABUS, and EMIT) and GC/MS. Quantitative immunoassay results (morphine equivalents) were compared with results by GC/MS for total morphine, free morphine, or total codeine. Mean detection times for the broadly cross-reacting immunoassays (TDx, ABUS, and EMIT, 300 ng/mL cutoff) ranged from 15-44 hours following heroin and morphine administration and 33-54 hours following codeine administration. Detection times obtained with CAC (25 ng/mL cutoff) tended to be somewhat shorter as a result of the high selectivity of the antibody for free morphine. High correlations over a wide concentration range were obtained for TDx, CAC, and ABUS versus GC/MS, with specimens collected after heroin and morphine administration. EMIT showed a high correlation over a narrow concentration range (0-1000 ng/mL) with heroin and morphine specimens, but responses plateaued at higher concentrations. There was substantial variability in immunoassay responses with specimens collected after codeine administration. Generally, this study demonstrated that immunoassay responses for opiate urine testing can be used as a semi-quantitative guide for GC/MS confirmation; however, the presence of codeine increased variability and diminished the accuracy of the immunoassay response.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Addiction Research Center, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8336489

Citation

Cone, E J., et al. "Forensic Drug Testing for Opiates. V. Urine Testing for Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine With Commercial Opiate Immunoassays." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 3, 1993, pp. 156-64.
Cone EJ, Dickerson S, Paul BD, et al. Forensic drug testing for opiates. V. Urine testing for heroin, morphine, and codeine with commercial opiate immunoassays. J Anal Toxicol. 1993;17(3):156-64.
Cone, E. J., Dickerson, S., Paul, B. D., & Mitchell, J. M. (1993). Forensic drug testing for opiates. V. Urine testing for heroin, morphine, and codeine with commercial opiate immunoassays. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 17(3), 156-64.
Cone EJ, et al. Forensic Drug Testing for Opiates. V. Urine Testing for Heroin, Morphine, and Codeine With Commercial Opiate Immunoassays. J Anal Toxicol. 1993 May-Jun;17(3):156-64. PubMed PMID: 8336489.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Forensic drug testing for opiates. V. Urine testing for heroin, morphine, and codeine with commercial opiate immunoassays. AU - Cone,E J, AU - Dickerson,S, AU - Paul,B D, AU - Mitchell,J M, PY - 1993/5/1/pubmed PY - 1993/5/1/medline PY - 1993/5/1/entrez SP - 156 EP - 64 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 17 IS - 3 N2 - Urine specimens collected after heroin, morphine, and codeine administration were tested by four commercial opiate immunoassays (TDx, CAC, ABUS, and EMIT) and GC/MS. Quantitative immunoassay results (morphine equivalents) were compared with results by GC/MS for total morphine, free morphine, or total codeine. Mean detection times for the broadly cross-reacting immunoassays (TDx, ABUS, and EMIT, 300 ng/mL cutoff) ranged from 15-44 hours following heroin and morphine administration and 33-54 hours following codeine administration. Detection times obtained with CAC (25 ng/mL cutoff) tended to be somewhat shorter as a result of the high selectivity of the antibody for free morphine. High correlations over a wide concentration range were obtained for TDx, CAC, and ABUS versus GC/MS, with specimens collected after heroin and morphine administration. EMIT showed a high correlation over a narrow concentration range (0-1000 ng/mL) with heroin and morphine specimens, but responses plateaued at higher concentrations. There was substantial variability in immunoassay responses with specimens collected after codeine administration. Generally, this study demonstrated that immunoassay responses for opiate urine testing can be used as a semi-quantitative guide for GC/MS confirmation; however, the presence of codeine increased variability and diminished the accuracy of the immunoassay response. SN - 0146-4760 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8336489/Forensic_drug_testing_for_opiates__V__Urine_testing_for_heroin_morphine_and_codeine_with_commercial_opiate_immunoassays_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/17.3.156 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -