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Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in long term oral contraceptive users.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Aug; 77(2):420-6.JC

Abstract

Oral contraceptives (OC) inhibit folliculogenesis by a central suppressive action on the release of gonadotropins. To characterize the nature of these central effects, we studied 40 long term OC users on 3 different OCs: two monophasic preparations with 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 150 micrograms l-norgestrel (group 1; n = 15), 150 micrograms desogestrel (group 2; n = 10), and a triphasic formulation containing 30-40 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 50, 75, and 125 micrograms l-norgestrel (group 3; n = 15). Blood sampling at 10-min intervals during 6-h periods was performed at different moments in the pill cycle. Thirteen healthy volunteers with regular ovulatory cycles served as normal controls. FSH and LH were measured by a sensitive immunoradiometric assay. Pulsatile LH release was observed in all OC users. Mean serum LH and FSH levels, number of LH pulses per 6 h, and the amplitude of LH pulses on day 1 of the pill cycle did not differ from early follicular phase control values. FSH levels were rapidly suppressed from day 2 onward in all three groups, whereas LH levels progressively declined in groups 1 and 2 from day 8 onward. In group 3, however, LH levels were only significantly suppressed after day 13. The number of LH pulses per 6 h decreased in all groups starting on day 2, whereas the amplitude of LH pulses increased. A substantial percentage of LH pulses observed in OC users after day 1 were of low amplitude (< 0.75 IU/L). From these results, we conclude that 1) pulsatile release of LH is maintained during OC use; 2) FSH levels are suppressed equally early and equally effective by all OCs studied; 3) during OC use, the number of LH pulses per 6 h is reduced; 4) modulation of LH pulse amplitudes, and subsequently of serum LH levels, is mainly mediated by a dose- and time-dependent effect of the gestagenic component of the OC; and 5) after the 7-day pill-free interval, a normal early follicular phase pulse pattern is found, even in long term OC users, suggesting that in this period, most of the steroidogenic feedback effects wear off.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Fertility, O. L. Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8345046

Citation

Hemrika, D J., et al. "Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Patterns in Long Term Oral Contraceptive Users." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 2, 1993, pp. 420-6.
Hemrika DJ, Slaats EH, Kennedy JC, et al. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in long term oral contraceptive users. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;77(2):420-6.
Hemrika, D. J., Slaats, E. H., Kennedy, J. C., de Vries Robles-Korsen, T. J., & Schoemaker, J. (1993). Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in long term oral contraceptive users. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 77(2), 420-6.
Hemrika DJ, et al. Pulsatile Luteinizing Hormone Patterns in Long Term Oral Contraceptive Users. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;77(2):420-6. PubMed PMID: 8345046.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pulsatile luteinizing hormone patterns in long term oral contraceptive users. AU - Hemrika,D J, AU - Slaats,E H, AU - Kennedy,J C, AU - de Vries Robles-Korsen,T J, AU - Schoemaker,J, PY - 1993/8/1/pubmed PY - 1993/8/1/medline PY - 1993/8/1/entrez KW - Biology KW - Clinical Research KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Methods KW - Endocrine System KW - Examinations And Diagnoses KW - Family Planning KW - Follicle Stimulating Hormone--analysis KW - Gonadotropins KW - Gonadotropins, Pituitary KW - Hormones KW - Laboratory Examinations And Diagnoses KW - Laboratory Procedures KW - Luteinizing Hormone--analysis KW - Oral Contraceptives KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose KW - Physiology KW - Research Methodology SP - 420 EP - 6 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J Clin Endocrinol Metab VL - 77 IS - 2 N2 - Oral contraceptives (OC) inhibit folliculogenesis by a central suppressive action on the release of gonadotropins. To characterize the nature of these central effects, we studied 40 long term OC users on 3 different OCs: two monophasic preparations with 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 150 micrograms l-norgestrel (group 1; n = 15), 150 micrograms desogestrel (group 2; n = 10), and a triphasic formulation containing 30-40 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 50, 75, and 125 micrograms l-norgestrel (group 3; n = 15). Blood sampling at 10-min intervals during 6-h periods was performed at different moments in the pill cycle. Thirteen healthy volunteers with regular ovulatory cycles served as normal controls. FSH and LH were measured by a sensitive immunoradiometric assay. Pulsatile LH release was observed in all OC users. Mean serum LH and FSH levels, number of LH pulses per 6 h, and the amplitude of LH pulses on day 1 of the pill cycle did not differ from early follicular phase control values. FSH levels were rapidly suppressed from day 2 onward in all three groups, whereas LH levels progressively declined in groups 1 and 2 from day 8 onward. In group 3, however, LH levels were only significantly suppressed after day 13. The number of LH pulses per 6 h decreased in all groups starting on day 2, whereas the amplitude of LH pulses increased. A substantial percentage of LH pulses observed in OC users after day 1 were of low amplitude (< 0.75 IU/L). From these results, we conclude that 1) pulsatile release of LH is maintained during OC use; 2) FSH levels are suppressed equally early and equally effective by all OCs studied; 3) during OC use, the number of LH pulses per 6 h is reduced; 4) modulation of LH pulse amplitudes, and subsequently of serum LH levels, is mainly mediated by a dose- and time-dependent effect of the gestagenic component of the OC; and 5) after the 7-day pill-free interval, a normal early follicular phase pulse pattern is found, even in long term OC users, suggesting that in this period, most of the steroidogenic feedback effects wear off. SN - 0021-972X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8345046/Pulsatile_luteinizing_hormone_patterns_in_long_term_oral_contraceptive_users_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jcem.77.2.8345046 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -