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Tourette's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence for a genetic relationship.
J Clin Psychiatry. 1993 Sep; 54(9):331-7.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD) is present in 49% to 83% of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS), and up to 50% of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have chronic tics or a family history of chronic tics. Two explanations have been offered for this association: (1) ADHD is part of the pleiotropic expression of the Gilles de la Tourette (Gts) gene(s), or (2) the presence of ADHD in TS is due to ascertainment bias.

METHOD

To avoid ascertainment bias, we examined 338 first-degree relatives of 131 TS probands utilizing a structured questionnaire and the DSM-III criteria for ADD and DSM-III-R criteria for ADHD. All probands and many relatives were personally interviewed.

RESULTS

Of the relatives with TS, 61% had ADD and 36% had ADHD. Of the relatives with chronic tics, 41% had ADD and 26% had ADHD. Log-linear analysis showed a major, significant association between tics and ADHD.

CONCLUSION

These results indicate that ADHD is part of the pleiotropic expression of the Gts gene(s).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8407852

Citation

Knell, E R., and D E. Comings. "Tourette's Syndrome and Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for a Genetic Relationship." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 9, 1993, pp. 331-7.
Knell ER, Comings DE. Tourette's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence for a genetic relationship. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54(9):331-7.
Knell, E. R., & Comings, D. E. (1993). Tourette's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence for a genetic relationship. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54(9), 331-7.
Knell ER, Comings DE. Tourette's Syndrome and Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for a Genetic Relationship. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54(9):331-7. PubMed PMID: 8407852.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tourette's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: evidence for a genetic relationship. AU - Knell,E R, AU - Comings,D E, PY - 1993/9/1/pubmed PY - 1993/9/1/medline PY - 1993/9/1/entrez SP - 331 EP - 7 JF - The Journal of clinical psychiatry JO - J Clin Psychiatry VL - 54 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD) is present in 49% to 83% of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS), and up to 50% of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have chronic tics or a family history of chronic tics. Two explanations have been offered for this association: (1) ADHD is part of the pleiotropic expression of the Gilles de la Tourette (Gts) gene(s), or (2) the presence of ADHD in TS is due to ascertainment bias. METHOD: To avoid ascertainment bias, we examined 338 first-degree relatives of 131 TS probands utilizing a structured questionnaire and the DSM-III criteria for ADD and DSM-III-R criteria for ADHD. All probands and many relatives were personally interviewed. RESULTS: Of the relatives with TS, 61% had ADD and 36% had ADHD. Of the relatives with chronic tics, 41% had ADD and 26% had ADHD. Log-linear analysis showed a major, significant association between tics and ADHD. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ADHD is part of the pleiotropic expression of the Gts gene(s). SN - 0160-6689 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8407852/Tourette's_syndrome_and_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder:_evidence_for_a_genetic_relationship_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/659 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -