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Gastrointestinal blood loss in older infants: impact of cow milk versus formula.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993 Jan; 16(1):4-9.JP

Abstract

Concerns that consumption of whole cow milk (WCM) by older infants may result in excessive gastrointestinal blood loss and subsequent iron deficiency led us to perform a prospective, randomized study in 104 infants. Infants were assigned to receive WCM beginning at 6 months or one of three formulas beginning at 4-6 months of age and followed until 12 months of age. Gastrointestinal blood loss was similar for all groups, as determined by both qualitative (Hemoccult II) and quantitative testing (HemoQuant). There was no association between concentration of fecal hemoglobin and volume of WCM consumed or iron status by 12 months of age. Of eight infants (seven WCM, one formula) who became iron-depleted, none had excessive fecal hemoglobin excretion. When pooled and analyzed regardless of feeding group, fecal hemoglobin increased with age and was greater at 11 and 12 months than at younger ages. We conclude that although infants fed WCM are at increased risk of developing iron depletion, the iron insufficiency is not due to gastrointestinal blood loss. We further conclude, based on our sample of normal infants age 4-12 months, that fecal hemoglobin concentrations of 0.5-0.8 mg/g stool correspond to the upper limits of normal, values much lower than in adults.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Medical School, New Orleans 70112.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8433239

Citation

Fuchs, G, et al. "Gastrointestinal Blood Loss in Older Infants: Impact of Cow Milk Versus Formula." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 1, 1993, pp. 4-9.
Fuchs G, DeWier M, Hutchinson S, et al. Gastrointestinal blood loss in older infants: impact of cow milk versus formula. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993;16(1):4-9.
Fuchs, G., DeWier, M., Hutchinson, S., Sundeen, M., Schwartz, S., & Suskind, R. (1993). Gastrointestinal blood loss in older infants: impact of cow milk versus formula. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 16(1), 4-9.
Fuchs G, et al. Gastrointestinal Blood Loss in Older Infants: Impact of Cow Milk Versus Formula. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993;16(1):4-9. PubMed PMID: 8433239.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gastrointestinal blood loss in older infants: impact of cow milk versus formula. AU - Fuchs,G, AU - DeWier,M, AU - Hutchinson,S, AU - Sundeen,M, AU - Schwartz,S, AU - Suskind,R, PY - 1993/1/1/pubmed PY - 1993/1/1/medline PY - 1993/1/1/entrez SP - 4 EP - 9 JF - Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition JO - J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - Concerns that consumption of whole cow milk (WCM) by older infants may result in excessive gastrointestinal blood loss and subsequent iron deficiency led us to perform a prospective, randomized study in 104 infants. Infants were assigned to receive WCM beginning at 6 months or one of three formulas beginning at 4-6 months of age and followed until 12 months of age. Gastrointestinal blood loss was similar for all groups, as determined by both qualitative (Hemoccult II) and quantitative testing (HemoQuant). There was no association between concentration of fecal hemoglobin and volume of WCM consumed or iron status by 12 months of age. Of eight infants (seven WCM, one formula) who became iron-depleted, none had excessive fecal hemoglobin excretion. When pooled and analyzed regardless of feeding group, fecal hemoglobin increased with age and was greater at 11 and 12 months than at younger ages. We conclude that although infants fed WCM are at increased risk of developing iron depletion, the iron insufficiency is not due to gastrointestinal blood loss. We further conclude, based on our sample of normal infants age 4-12 months, that fecal hemoglobin concentrations of 0.5-0.8 mg/g stool correspond to the upper limits of normal, values much lower than in adults. SN - 0277-2116 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8433239/Gastrointestinal_blood_loss_in_older_infants:_impact_of_cow_milk_versus_formula_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=8433239.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -