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A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A high dietary calcium intake is strongly suspected of increasing the risk of kidney stones. However, a high intake of calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, which is thought to lower the risk. The concept that a higher dietary calcium intake increases the risk of kidney stones therefore requires examination.

METHODS

We conducted a prospective study of the relation between dietary calcium intake and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones in a cohort of 45,619 men, 40 to 75 years of age, who had no history of kidney stones. Dietary calcium was measured by means of a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1986. During four years of follow-up, 505 cases of kidney stones were documented.

RESULTS

After adjustment for age, dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the risk of kidney stones; the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest as compared with the lowest quintile group for calcium intake was 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.73; P for trend, < 0.001). This reduction in risk decreased only slightly (relative risk, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.90) after further adjustment for other potential risk factors, including alcohol consumption and dietary intake of animal protein, potassium, and fluid. Intake of animal protein was directly associated with the risk of stone formation (relative risk for men with the highest intake as compared with those with the lowest, 1.33; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.77); potassium intake (relative risk, 0.49; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.68) and fluid intake (relative risk, 0.71; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.97) were inversely related to the risk of kidney stones.

CONCLUSIONS

A high dietary calcium intake decreases the risk of symptomatic kidney stones.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115.

    , ,

    Source

    The New England journal of medicine 328:12 1993 Mar 25 pg 833-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Calcium, Dietary
    Dietary Proteins
    Humans
    Kidney Calculi
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Potassium, Dietary
    Prospective Studies
    Risk

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    8441427

    Citation

    Curhan, G C., et al. "A Prospective Study of Dietary Calcium and Other Nutrients and the Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 328, no. 12, 1993, pp. 833-8.
    Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(12):833-8.
    Curhan, G. C., Willett, W. C., Rimm, E. B., & Stampfer, M. J. (1993). A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. The New England Journal of Medicine, 328(12), pp. 833-8.
    Curhan GC, et al. A Prospective Study of Dietary Calcium and Other Nutrients and the Risk of Symptomatic Kidney Stones. N Engl J Med. 1993 Mar 25;328(12):833-8. PubMed PMID: 8441427.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. AU - Curhan,G C, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Rimm,E B, AU - Stampfer,M J, PY - 1993/3/25/pubmed PY - 1993/3/25/medline PY - 1993/3/25/entrez SP - 833 EP - 8 JF - The New England journal of medicine JO - N. Engl. J. Med. VL - 328 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: A high dietary calcium intake is strongly suspected of increasing the risk of kidney stones. However, a high intake of calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, which is thought to lower the risk. The concept that a higher dietary calcium intake increases the risk of kidney stones therefore requires examination. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of the relation between dietary calcium intake and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones in a cohort of 45,619 men, 40 to 75 years of age, who had no history of kidney stones. Dietary calcium was measured by means of a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1986. During four years of follow-up, 505 cases of kidney stones were documented. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the risk of kidney stones; the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest as compared with the lowest quintile group for calcium intake was 0.56 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.73; P for trend, < 0.001). This reduction in risk decreased only slightly (relative risk, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.90) after further adjustment for other potential risk factors, including alcohol consumption and dietary intake of animal protein, potassium, and fluid. Intake of animal protein was directly associated with the risk of stone formation (relative risk for men with the highest intake as compared with those with the lowest, 1.33; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.77); potassium intake (relative risk, 0.49; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.35 to 0.68) and fluid intake (relative risk, 0.71; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.97) were inversely related to the risk of kidney stones. CONCLUSIONS: A high dietary calcium intake decreases the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. SN - 0028-4793 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8441427/A_prospective_study_of_dietary_calcium_and_other_nutrients_and_the_risk_of_symptomatic_kidney_stones_ L2 - https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJM199303253281203?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -