Longitudinal relations between temperament traits and behavioral syndromes in middle childhood.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1993 Mar; 32(2):287-90.JA
This study tested Graham and Stevenson's 1987 hypothesis specifying links between EAS (emotionality-activity-sociability) temperament traits and behavioral syndromes of depression, hyperactivity, and delinquency in an unselected sample of 164 children in infancy and early childhood.
Mothers completed the Colorado Child Temperament Inventory. Each mother also used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to report on her child's behavior problems after the child's completion of first grade. Scores on three CBCL scales, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and delinquent behavior, were examined in relation to the EAS traits.
For boys, high emotionality in infancy and early childhood was associated with high scores on both the anxiety/depression and attention problem scales. For girls, both high emotionality and low sociability predicted high scores on the anxiety/depression scale. There were no associations between EAS traits and attention problems for girls. There was little evidence for links between EAS traits and delinquent behavior for either boys or girls.
The results are discussed with respect to temperamental traits as risk factors for the emergence of behavior problems in childhood.