Effect of butter, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans fatty acid margarine, and zero trans fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men.J Lipid Res. 1993 Jan; 34(1):1-11.JL
The effect of diets containing 50% of fat calories from butter, butter enriched with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and margarines with and without trans fatty acids on the serum lipids of 38 healthy men in a free-living condition have been determined. Serum lipid responses to the high level of individual dietary fats were unexpectedly small. The butter diet produced a small, but significant rise (5%) in the total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, relative to all other diets. Enrichment of butter with either olive oil (50/50) or sunflower oil (50/50) failed to reduce serum lipid levels below habitual diet values. Hard margarine, containing 29% trans fatty acids, caused a decrease in apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, but did not change total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels, relative to habitual diet values. A soft margarine, high in linoleate, with no trans fatty acids reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B significantly, relative to all diets. Soft margarine high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels remained unchanged, but apolipoprotein A-I values were decreased relative to habitual and butter diets. The quantities of saturated fatty acids and the sum of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed on the hard and soft margarines were equal; therefore, the different response of serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol between these two diets is attributable to the trans fatty acids in the hard margarine. The data indicate that trans fatty acids are not metabolically equivalent to the natural cis isomers and that they affect the serum lipid profile adversely.