Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactive substance in bronchoalveolar lavage of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis.Eur Respir J. 1993 Mar; 6(3):418-24.ER
The neuropeptide gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is present in the lung, and functions as a modulator of tissue growth and repair in fibrotic processes, or as a modulator of cell movement and differentiation in various inflammatory processes, including granulomatous ones. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), changes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) content of GRP can be expected. We measured GRP-like immunoreactive substances (GRP-IS) and another neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-IS in BAL by enzyme immunoassay. Our results showed a decrease in BAL GRP-IS in patients with IPF (26.5 +/- 5.5 pg.mg-1 protein) and sarcoidosis (35.9 +/- 9.2 pg.mg-1), compared to healthy nonsmokers (63.4 +/- 9.0 pg.mg-1). When data were expressed as pg.ml-1 BAL fluid recovered, a decrease was only seen in IPF, not in sarcoidosis. The levels of VIP-IS in BAL were not different between the groups studied. Increased protein levels in BAL had no correlation with the levels of GRP-IS or VIP-IS in BAL. Furthermore, BAL neutrophil percentages had no correlation with the levels of GRP-IS in BAL of patients with IPF. Using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), several kinds of GRP-IS were detected in BAL. These findings suggest that the decreased level of GRP-IS in BAL may reflect a loss of GRP-producing cells due to chronic lung injury and fibrosis in patients with IPF.