Current treatment modalities for symptomatic gallstones.Am J Gastroenterol 1993; 88(5):633-9AJ
Gallstone disease is an important clinical problem: approximately 10% of all adults in the western population have gallstones. Most gallstones, however, remain asymptomatic, and from various disciplines there is consensus that only symptomatic gallstones require therapy. Since the first gallbladder extirpation in 1882, cholecystectomy has been considered the gold standard. Nowadays, this operation is performed laparoscopically in most hospitals. Despite relatively low morbidity and mortality rates, a number of alternative therapies have been developed in the past few years. These alternative treatment modalities are especially indicated in high risk patients and in patients rejecting surgery. In this review article, the currently available treatment modalities are discussed.