Sex hormones and headache.J Pain Symptom Manage. 1993 Feb; 8(2):98-114.JP
A variety of evidence suggests a link between migraine and the female sex hormones. Women with migraine outnumber men by at least a 2:1 ratio and definite patterns of development and attacks are noted at menarche and throughout the period of menses, related to trimester of pregnancy, and again at menopause, although it may also regress. Hormonal replacement with estrogen can exacerbate migraine; oral contraceptives can change the character and frequency of migraine headache. This article will cover approaches to the therapy of hormone-related headaches associated with the menstrual cycle, menopause, and oral contraceptives.