Characterization of two stop codon mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase gene of three male galactosemic patients with severe clinical manifestation.Hum Genet. 1995 Dec; 96(6):721-5.HG
Classical galactosemia, which is caused by deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, is characterized by acute problems of hepatocellular dysfunction, sepsis, cataracts and failure to thrive. Galactose limitation reverses these symptoms immediately; however, the long-term complications, such as mental retardation and ovarian failures are major problems in most of these patients. In order to investigate the molecular basis for phenotype variation in galactosemia, we have screened the most common mutation in the GALT gene, Q188R. We have further examined those patients who are heterozygous for Q188R or negative for this mutation by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. In three male patients, we have identified, for the first time, two stop-codon mutations in the GALT gene, G212X (exon 7) and E340X (exon 10). Two patients of 8 and 28 years of age, respectively, who are compound heterozygotes for Q188R and G212X, have severe mental retardation and their general clinical condition is more severe than that of patients with missense mutations. The third patient, who is 8 years of age and who is homozygous for E340X, the N314D polymorphism and a silent substitution L218L, presents with a relatively normal physical and mental condition to date.