Interleukin 1 induces HIV-1 expression in chronically infected U1 cells: blockade by interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor binding protein type 1.Mol Med. 1995 Sep; 1(6):667-77.MM
Cytokines and cytokine antagonists modulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vitro and may be involved in HIV disease pathogenesis. An understanding of these cytokine networks may suggest novel treatment strategies for HIV-seropositive persons.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
U1 cells, a chronically infected promonocytic cell line, were stimulated with interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) for 24 hr. The effects of these cytokines, and of anti-IL-1 receptor type 1 and type 2 (IL-1RI and II) antibody, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and recombinant human TNF binding protein type 1 (rhTBP-1, a form of TNF receptor p55), on HIV-1 replication, as measured by ELISA for HIV-1 p24 antigen, were determined. The effects of IL-1 and IL-1Ra on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA binding activity, as measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, were also determined.
IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta increased p24 antigen production in a concentration-dependent manner. IL-1Ra completely, and rhTBP-1 partially, suppressed IL-1-induced p24 antigen production. IL-1 increased NF-kappa B DNA binding activity and IL-1Ra blocked this effect. Since IL-1Ra blocks IL-1 from binding to both the IL-1RI and Il-1RII, monoclonal antibodies directed against each receptor were used to ascertain which IL-1R mediates IL-1-induced HIV-1 expression. Antibody to the IL-1RI reduced IL-1-induced p24 antigen production. Although anti-IL-1RII antibody blocked the binding of 125IL-1-1 alpha to U1 cells by 99%, this antibody did not affect IL-1-induced p24 antigen production. IL-1 beta enhanced TNF alpha-induced HIV expression when added before or simultaneously with TNF alpha.
IL-1 induces HIV-1 expression (via the IL-1RI) and NF-kappa B activity in U1 cells. These effects are blocked by IL-1Ra and partially mediated by TNF. IL-1 enhances TNF alpha-induced HIV replication in U1 cells.