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Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec; 80(12):3628-33.JC

Abstract

Severe chronic undernutrition is associated with decreased bone turnover and significant bone loss. However, little is known about the short-term effects of nutritional deprivation on bone turnover. To investigate the effects of short-term fasting on bone metabolism and the contribution of acidosis to these changes, 14 healthy women ages 18-26 (mean, 21 +/- 2 (SD years) were randomized to potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, 2 meq/kg/day in divided doses) to prevent acidosis or control (potassium chloride, 25 meq/day) during a complete 4-day fast. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation [osteocalcin (OC) and Type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP)] and resorption [pyridinoline (PYRX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX)]. Serum bicarbonate levels fell significantly from 27.0 +/- 3.2 to 17.3 +/- 2.6 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in the control group and were decreased compared to patients receiving KHCO3 [17.3 +/- 2.6 vs. 23.4 +/- 2.4 mmol/L, (P < 0.001)]. Serum total and ionized calcium increased significantly in the control group [9.1 +/- 0.1 to 9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/dL (P < 0.01) and 1.20 +/- 0.03 to 1.23 +/- 0.03 mmol/L (P < 0.05), respectively], but not in patients receiving KHCO3. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels decreased from 32 +/- 17 to 16 +/- 10 pg/mL (P < 0.05) and urinary calcium excretion increased [86 +/- 51 to 182 +/- 103 mg/day (P = 0.01)] in the control group, but not in patients receiving KHCO3. Serum osteocalcin (OC) and procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP) levels decreased significantly after 4 days of fasting from 9.1 +/- 3.4 to 5.5 +/- 4.2 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and 121 +/- 21 to 46 +/- 13 ng/mL (P = 0.0001) respectively in the patients receiving bicarbonate, and from 10.1 +/- 3.3 to 4.0 +/- 2.9 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and from 133 +/- 22 to 47 +/- 19 ng/mL (P < 0.001) respectively in the control group. The decrease in osteocalcin and PICP during fasting was comparable in both treatment groups. By contrast, urinary excretion of PYRX and DPYRX did not change significantly in either group with 4 days of fasting. These data are the first to demonstrate that markers of bone formation decline significantly with short-term fasting, independent of changes in acid-base status. By contrast, these data demonstrate a direct effect of acidosis in stimulating calcium release from bone during short-term fasting and suggest that acidosis may increase mineral dissolution independent of osteoclast activation and PTH in this experimental model of acute starvation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8530611

Citation

Grinspoon, S K., et al. "Decreased Bone Formation and Increased Mineral Dissolution During Acute Fasting in Young Women." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 80, no. 12, 1995, pp. 3628-33.
Grinspoon SK, Baum HB, Kim V, et al. Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80(12):3628-33.
Grinspoon, S. K., Baum, H. B., Kim, V., Coggins, C., & Klibanski, A. (1995). Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80(12), 3628-33.
Grinspoon SK, et al. Decreased Bone Formation and Increased Mineral Dissolution During Acute Fasting in Young Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80(12):3628-33. PubMed PMID: 8530611.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Decreased bone formation and increased mineral dissolution during acute fasting in young women. AU - Grinspoon,S K, AU - Baum,H B, AU - Kim,V, AU - Coggins,C, AU - Klibanski,A, PY - 1995/12/1/pubmed PY - 1995/12/1/medline PY - 1995/12/1/entrez SP - 3628 EP - 33 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J Clin Endocrinol Metab VL - 80 IS - 12 N2 - Severe chronic undernutrition is associated with decreased bone turnover and significant bone loss. However, little is known about the short-term effects of nutritional deprivation on bone turnover. To investigate the effects of short-term fasting on bone metabolism and the contribution of acidosis to these changes, 14 healthy women ages 18-26 (mean, 21 +/- 2 (SD years) were randomized to potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, 2 meq/kg/day in divided doses) to prevent acidosis or control (potassium chloride, 25 meq/day) during a complete 4-day fast. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation [osteocalcin (OC) and Type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP)] and resorption [pyridinoline (PYRX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYRX)]. Serum bicarbonate levels fell significantly from 27.0 +/- 3.2 to 17.3 +/- 2.6 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in the control group and were decreased compared to patients receiving KHCO3 [17.3 +/- 2.6 vs. 23.4 +/- 2.4 mmol/L, (P < 0.001)]. Serum total and ionized calcium increased significantly in the control group [9.1 +/- 0.1 to 9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/dL (P < 0.01) and 1.20 +/- 0.03 to 1.23 +/- 0.03 mmol/L (P < 0.05), respectively], but not in patients receiving KHCO3. In addition, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels decreased from 32 +/- 17 to 16 +/- 10 pg/mL (P < 0.05) and urinary calcium excretion increased [86 +/- 51 to 182 +/- 103 mg/day (P = 0.01)] in the control group, but not in patients receiving KHCO3. Serum osteocalcin (OC) and procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide (PICP) levels decreased significantly after 4 days of fasting from 9.1 +/- 3.4 to 5.5 +/- 4.2 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and 121 +/- 21 to 46 +/- 13 ng/mL (P = 0.0001) respectively in the patients receiving bicarbonate, and from 10.1 +/- 3.3 to 4.0 +/- 2.9 ng/mL (P < 0.01) and from 133 +/- 22 to 47 +/- 19 ng/mL (P < 0.001) respectively in the control group. The decrease in osteocalcin and PICP during fasting was comparable in both treatment groups. By contrast, urinary excretion of PYRX and DPYRX did not change significantly in either group with 4 days of fasting. These data are the first to demonstrate that markers of bone formation decline significantly with short-term fasting, independent of changes in acid-base status. By contrast, these data demonstrate a direct effect of acidosis in stimulating calcium release from bone during short-term fasting and suggest that acidosis may increase mineral dissolution independent of osteoclast activation and PTH in this experimental model of acute starvation. SN - 0021-972X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8530611/Decreased_bone_formation_and_increased_mineral_dissolution_during_acute_fasting_in_young_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jcem.80.12.8530611 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -