The reflective educator.Am Psychol. 1995 Dec; 50(12):975-83.AP
Since the Boulder conference on training in clinical psychology in 1949, at least 13 national conferences have been convened to examine issues in training for practice in psychology, all based on the assumption that extensive training is required to develop professional skills in psychotherapy, psychodiagnosis, and related professional functions. This assumption is challenged by a large body of research that fails to show any relationship between training and efficacy in common forms of practice. Educators of professional psychologists are urged to heed the challenge closely and examine its implications critically. At the same time, educators of researchers in psychology are encouraged to examine common assumptions about the nature of practice in psychology and to consider conceptions of professional work that emphasize reflection in action and disciplined inquiry, rather than psychotherapy and psychodiagnosis, as defining features. Education for practice is neither science nor art, but a profession in itself. When the educational process is approached from this vantage point, novel opportunities for systematic investigation emerge. Decisive studies of the appropriate kind have yet to be done.