[Imported visceral leishmaniasis (kala azar) in a German infant].Klin Padiatr. 1995 Nov-Dec; 207(6):347-9.KP
We here report the case of a 1 4/12 year old girl with visceral leishmaniasis. Returning from a trip to Mallorca she presented with pancytopenia, splenomegaly and fever and was admitted to hospital with suspected malignancy. Diagnosis was established microscopically from bone marrow smear and confirmed by PCR-assisted amplification of leishmania-specific DNA from peripheral blood. Treatment was conducted with stibogluconate for 25 days. Defervescence and improvement of clinical symptoms was seen after 4 days of treatment. Infection due to Leishmania donovani can be acquired throughout the entire mediterranean area and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of suspected malignancies in patients with a history of travel to mediterranean countries. PCR proved to be a sensitive tool for establishing the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.