Effectiveness of short-course therapy (5 days) with cefuroxime axetil in treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995 Nov; 39(11):2528-34.AA
Five hundred thirty-seven patients were enrolled in two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials comparing the clinical and bacteriologic efficacies and the safety of 5- or 10-day treatment with cefuroxime axetil with those of 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis. Patients received either 5 or 10 days of treatment (n = 177 in each group) with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily or 10 days of treatment (n = 183) with amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily. Patients in the cefuroxime axetil (5 days) group received placebo on days 6 to 10. Bacteriologic assessments were based on sputum specimen cultures obtained preceding and, when possible, following treatment. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment sputum specimens of 242 of 537 (45%) patients, with the primary pathogens being Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (28, 25, 13, 9, and 8% of isolates, respectively). Pathogens were eradicated or presumed to be eradicated in 87% (52 of 60), 91% (53 of 58), and 86% (60 of 70) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was achieved in 82% (107 of 130), 86% (117 of 136), and 83% (130 of 157) of the clinically evaluable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil (5 days), cefuroxime axetil (10 days), and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days (P = 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (37 versus 19 and 15%, respectively; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea and nausea. These results indicate that treatment with cefuroxime axetil at 250 mg twice daily for 5 days is as effective as treatment for 10 days with either the same dose of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin-clavulanate at 500 mg three times daily in patients with acute bronchitis. In addition, treatment with cefuroxime axetil for either 5 or 10 days is associated with significantly fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea and nausea, than is 10-day treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate.