Clinical comparison of cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of patients with secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis.Clin Ther. 1995 Sep-Oct; 17(5):861-74.CT
Two independent, investigator-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trials compared the clinical and bacteriologic efficacy and safety of two oral antibiotics, cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin/clavulanate, in the treatment of patients with secondary bacterial infections of acute bronchitis (hereafter denoted acute bronchitis). Three hundred sixty patients with signs and symptoms of acute bronchitis were enrolled at 22 centers and were randomly assigned to receive 10 days of treatment with either cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily (BID) (n= 177) or amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg three times daily (TID) (n = 183). Patients were assessed for both clinical and bacteriologic responses once during treatment (at 3 to 5 days) and twice after treatment (at 1 to 3 days and at 13 to 15 days). Bacteriologic assessments were based on sputum specimen cultures obtained before treatment and, when possible, after treatment. Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment sputum specimens of 162 (45%) of 360 patients, with the primary pathogens being Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus (28%, 25%, 11%, 9%, and 8% of isolates, respectively). Thirty-four percent of the H influenzae isolates and 94% of the M catarrhalis isolates that were tested for beta-lactamase production were positive. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) was achieved in 86% (117 of 136) and 83% (130 of 157) of the clinically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.45). With respect to the eradication of bacterial pathogens, a satisfactory outcome (cure, presumed care, or cure with colonization) was obtained in 91% (53 of 58) and 86% (60 of 70) of bacteriologically assessable patients treated with cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P = 0.32). Treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with cefuroxime axetil (39% vs 23%; P = 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (37% vs 15%; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea and nausea. Four patients in the cefuroxime axetil group and eight patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the study because of drug-related adverse events. These results indicate that cefuroxime axetil 250 mg BID is as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanate 500 mg TID in the treatment of patients with acute bronchitis but produces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events, particularly diarrhea and nausea.