Threat to occupational status control and cardiovascular risk.Isr J Med Sci. 1996 Mar-Apr; 32(3-4):179-84.IJ
Individuals exposed to chronically stressful social contexts were show n to suffer from increased cardiovascular risk. High effort at work in combination with low reward, and especially with low control over one's occupational status, defines one such stressful social context. In this study an association between high effort, low occupational status control and hypertension as well as the co-manifestation of hypertension and elevated atherogenic lipids [coronary high risk (CHR) status] is explored in a group of 179 middle-aged (48.5+/-6.5 years) male managers. After adjustment for relevant covariates, logistic regression analysis showed independent effects of indicators of high extrinsic effort [time pressure: odds radio (OR)=5.31 95% confidence intervals (95%-C1): 1.10-25.57; severe problems: OR = 4.64 95% Cl: 1.37-15.68] and of low status control (forced job change: OR = 3.92 95% Cl: 1.29-11.92) on CHR. Similar, but less powerful effects were observed with respect to the criterion of hypertension. In conclusion, our findings indicate that effort-reward imbalance at work, and especially threatened status control, defines an independent psychosocial risk constellation with relevance to cardiovascular disease.