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The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension. The Normative Aging Study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To test the hypothesis that long-term lead accumulation, as reflected by levels of lead in bone (as opposed to blood which reflects recent lead exposure), is associated with an increased odds of developing hypertension.

DESIGN

Case-control study of participants in the Veterans Administration (now Department of Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study, a 30-year longitudinal study of men.

PARTICIPANTS

Of 1171 active subjects who were seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 590 (50%) participated in this investigation and had data on all variables of interest.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Hypertension was defined as taking daily medication for the treatment of hypertension or systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of 96 mm Hg or higher during the time of examination. Levels of lead in the tibia (representing cortical bone) and the patella (representing trabecular bone) were measured in vivo with a K x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) instrument. Levels of lead in blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

RESULTS

Blood lead levels were low, ranging from less than 0.05 to 1.35 micromol/L (<1 to 28 microgram/dL), with a mean (SD) of 0.30 (0.20) micromol/L (6.3[4.1] microgram/dL). Bone lead levels were similar to those described in other general populations. In comparison to nonhypertensives, mean levels of lead in blood and both tibia and patella bone lead levels were significantly higher in hypertensive subjects. In a logistic regression model of hypertensive status that began with age, race, body mass index, family history of hypertension, history of ethanol ingestion, pack-years of smoking, dietary sodium intake, dietary calcium intake, blood lead, tibia lead, and patella lead, the variables that remained after backward elimination were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and level of lead in the tibia. An increase from the midpoint of the lowest quintile to the midpoint of the highest quintile of tibia lead from 3 to 37 micrograms per gram of bone mineral was associated with an increased odds ratio of hypertension of 1.5.

CONCLUSION

Our findings suggest that long-term lead accumulation, as reflected by levels of lead in bone, may be an independent risk factor for developing hypertension in men in the general population.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    JAMA 275:15 1996 Apr 17 pg 1171-6

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Aged
    Biomarkers
    Blood Pressure
    Body Burden
    Bone and Bones
    Case-Control Studies
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Lead
    Logistic Models
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Patella
    Risk Factors
    Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
    Spectrophotometry, Atomic
    Tibia

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    8609684

    Citation

    Hu, H, et al. "The Relationship of Bone and Blood Lead to Hypertension. the Normative Aging Study." JAMA, vol. 275, no. 15, 1996, pp. 1171-6.
    Hu H, Aro A, Payton M, et al. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension. The Normative Aging Study. JAMA. 1996;275(15):1171-6.
    Hu, H., Aro, A., Payton, M., Korrick, S., Sparrow, D., Weiss, S. T., & Rotnitzky, A. (1996). The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension. The Normative Aging Study. JAMA, 275(15), pp. 1171-6.
    Hu H, et al. The Relationship of Bone and Blood Lead to Hypertension. the Normative Aging Study. JAMA. 1996 Apr 17;275(15):1171-6. PubMed PMID: 8609684.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension. The Normative Aging Study. AU - Hu,H, AU - Aro,A, AU - Payton,M, AU - Korrick,S, AU - Sparrow,D, AU - Weiss,S T, AU - Rotnitzky,A, PY - 1996/4/17/pubmed PY - 1996/4/17/medline PY - 1996/4/17/entrez SP - 1171 EP - 6 JF - JAMA JO - JAMA VL - 275 IS - 15 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that long-term lead accumulation, as reflected by levels of lead in bone (as opposed to blood which reflects recent lead exposure), is associated with an increased odds of developing hypertension. DESIGN: Case-control study of participants in the Veterans Administration (now Department of Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study, a 30-year longitudinal study of men. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1171 active subjects who were seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 590 (50%) participated in this investigation and had data on all variables of interest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypertension was defined as taking daily medication for the treatment of hypertension or systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of 96 mm Hg or higher during the time of examination. Levels of lead in the tibia (representing cortical bone) and the patella (representing trabecular bone) were measured in vivo with a K x-ray fluorescence (KXRF) instrument. Levels of lead in blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were low, ranging from less than 0.05 to 1.35 micromol/L (<1 to 28 microgram/dL), with a mean (SD) of 0.30 (0.20) micromol/L (6.3[4.1] microgram/dL). Bone lead levels were similar to those described in other general populations. In comparison to nonhypertensives, mean levels of lead in blood and both tibia and patella bone lead levels were significantly higher in hypertensive subjects. In a logistic regression model of hypertensive status that began with age, race, body mass index, family history of hypertension, history of ethanol ingestion, pack-years of smoking, dietary sodium intake, dietary calcium intake, blood lead, tibia lead, and patella lead, the variables that remained after backward elimination were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and level of lead in the tibia. An increase from the midpoint of the lowest quintile to the midpoint of the highest quintile of tibia lead from 3 to 37 micrograms per gram of bone mineral was associated with an increased odds ratio of hypertension of 1.5. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that long-term lead accumulation, as reflected by levels of lead in bone, may be an independent risk factor for developing hypertension in men in the general population. SN - 0098-7484 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8609684/The_relationship_of_bone_and_blood_lead_to_hypertension__The_Normative_Aging_Study_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/vol/275/pg/1171 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -