Asymptomatic gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection in rural Tanzanian men.BMJ. 1996 Feb 03; 312(7026):277-80.BMJ
To measure the prevalence of urethritis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydial infection trachomatis in rural Tanzanian men
About 500 men aged 15-54 years were selected from each of 12 rural communities by random cluster sampling; interviewed concerning past or present symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases; and asked to provide a first catch urine specimen, which was tested for pyuria with a leucocyte esterase dipstick test. Subjects with symptoms or with a positive result on testing were examined, and urethral swabs were taken for detection of N gonorrhoeae by gram stain and of C trachomatis by antigen detection immunoassay.
Mwanza region, north western Tanzania.
5876 men aged 15-54 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Prevalence of urethral symptoms, observed urethral discharge, pyuria, urethritis (> 4 pus cells per high power field on urethral smear), N gonorrhoeae infection (intracellular gram negative diplococci), and C trachomatis infection (IDEIA antigen detection assay).
1618 (28%) subjects reported ever having a urethral discharge. Current discharge was reported by 149 (2.5%) and observed on examination in 207 (3.5%). Gonorrhoea was found in 128 subjects (2.2%) and chlamydial infection in 39 (0.7%). Only 24 of 158 infected subjects complained of urethral discharge at the time of interview (15%).
Infection with N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis is commonly asymptomatic among men in this rural African population. This has important implications for the design of control programmes for sexually transmitted disease.