Short-term treatment with growth hormone stimulates osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a dose response study.J Bone Miner Res 1995; 10(12):1865-74JB
To investigate the potential use of growth hormone (GH) in Activate-Depress-Free-Repeat treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, we measured changes in serum levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), calciotropic hormones, and bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ages 52-73 years) in response to 7 days of treatment with either placebo or GH (0.05, 0.10, or 0.20 IU/kg/day) administered subcutaneously in the evening. GH treatment increased serum osteocalcin (p < 0.01) and C-terminal type-I procollagen propeptide (p < 0.01) and also serum levels of type-I collagen telopeptide (p < 0.001), fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine (p < 0.05), pyridinoline/creatinine (p < 0.05), and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent fashion. Even the lowest dose of GH tested induced a significant increase in these parameters; however, the effects were transient lasting only 1-2 weeks. In the highest dose group, however, a somewhat prolonged effect (30 days) on serum osteocalcin was observed. Furthermore, GH increased serum levels of IGF-I, insulin, and tri-iodothyronin. No effect on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone could be demonstrated. Adverse effects were mainly related to fluid retention. They were clearly dose-dependent and rapidly reversible. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment stimulates bone formation and bone resorption in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.