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Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Feb; 174(2):628-32.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Because cigarette smoking has a variety of antiestrogenic actions, we investigated the possibility that smoking may adversely affect spotting and bleeding among women using oral contraceptives.

STUDY DESIGN

Three open-label, randomized clinical trials involving 16,506 cycles among 2956 oral contraceptive users were performed.

RESULTS

Smokers reported a consistently higher frequency of spotting or bleeding than did nonsmokers. After recency and consistency of oral contraceptive use and progestin component were controlled for, smokers were, on average, 47% more likely to have spotting or bleeding than nonsmokers were over six cycles of oral contraceptive use, with higher levels of smoking associated with a greater frequency of spotting or bleeding. By the sixth cycle women who smoked > or = 16 cigarettes per day were almost three times more likely to have spotting or bleeding than were nonsmokers.

CONCLUSION

Cigarette smoking adversely affects cycle control among oral contraceptive users, possibly by increasing estrogen catabolism. Although these findings also raise the possibility that oral contraceptive efficacy may also be impaired in smokers, an immediate concern is that oral contraceptive users who have spotting and bleeding are more likely to discontinue their use, placing them at risk of unintended pregnancy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health Decisions, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC 27515, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8623797

Citation

Rosenberg, M J., et al. "Smoking and Cycle Control Among Oral Contraceptive Users." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 174, no. 2, 1996, pp. 628-32.
Rosenberg MJ, Waugh MS, Stevens CM. Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174(2):628-32.
Rosenberg, M. J., Waugh, M. S., & Stevens, C. M. (1996). Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 174(2), 628-32.
Rosenberg MJ, Waugh MS, Stevens CM. Smoking and Cycle Control Among Oral Contraceptive Users. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174(2):628-32. PubMed PMID: 8623797.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users. AU - Rosenberg,M J, AU - Waugh,M S, AU - Stevens,C M, PY - 1996/2/1/pubmed PY - 1996/2/1/medline PY - 1996/2/1/entrez KW - Americas KW - Behavior KW - Bleeding KW - Clinical Research KW - Clinical Trials KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin--side effects KW - Contraceptive Agents--side effects KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Developed Countries KW - Diseases KW - Family Planning KW - North America KW - North Carolina KW - Northern America KW - Oral Contraceptives, Combined--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Progestins, Low-dose--side effects KW - Research Methodology KW - Signs And Symptoms KW - Smoking--side effects KW - United States SP - 628 EP - 32 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am J Obstet Gynecol VL - 174 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Because cigarette smoking has a variety of antiestrogenic actions, we investigated the possibility that smoking may adversely affect spotting and bleeding among women using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Three open-label, randomized clinical trials involving 16,506 cycles among 2956 oral contraceptive users were performed. RESULTS: Smokers reported a consistently higher frequency of spotting or bleeding than did nonsmokers. After recency and consistency of oral contraceptive use and progestin component were controlled for, smokers were, on average, 47% more likely to have spotting or bleeding than nonsmokers were over six cycles of oral contraceptive use, with higher levels of smoking associated with a greater frequency of spotting or bleeding. By the sixth cycle women who smoked > or = 16 cigarettes per day were almost three times more likely to have spotting or bleeding than were nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking adversely affects cycle control among oral contraceptive users, possibly by increasing estrogen catabolism. Although these findings also raise the possibility that oral contraceptive efficacy may also be impaired in smokers, an immediate concern is that oral contraceptive users who have spotting and bleeding are more likely to discontinue their use, placing them at risk of unintended pregnancy. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8623797/Smoking_and_cycle_control_among_oral_contraceptive_users_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9378(96)70440-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -