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Conflicts of interest: the genesis of synthetic antimalarial agents in peace and war.
J Antimicrob Chemother 1995; 36(5):857-72JA

Abstract

Malaria has had an enormous impact on human history, not least in times of war. The disease has been treatable by a natural remedy, quinine, since the 17th century, but the production of synthetic antimalarial agents was first achieved in Germany in the wake of the Great War of 1914-1918, in which malaria had caused immense problems. In the 1920s research workers in the Bayer laboratories of the IG Farbenindustrie consortium developed the 8-aminoquinoline plasmoquine (the forerunner of primaquine). They went on to develop the acridine dye, atebrin (mepacrine) and the 4-aminoquinolines, Resochin (developed at the end of the Second World War in America as chloroquine) and Sontochin. British attempts to match the advances achieved by the Germans were at first unproductive, partly because collaboration between academic and industrial organizations in the UK was beset by concerns over patent rights. However, with the outbreak of World War II, when supplies of antimalarials were scarce, ICI succeeded in the large-scale production of mepacrine (essential to prosecution of the war, particularly in the Far East) and also initiated a programme of collaborative research that eventually led to the discovery of proguanil (Paludrine); this, in its turn led to the diaminopyrimidine, pyrimethamine. A massive cooperative screening programme in the USA during World War II eventually bore fruit in the realization of the therapeutic potential of chloroquine, and in the later development of amodiaquine and primaquine. Some of this work also influenced the subsequent discovery of mefloquine and halofantrine at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8626269

Citation

Greenwood, D. "Conflicts of Interest: the Genesis of Synthetic Antimalarial Agents in Peace and War." The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 36, no. 5, 1995, pp. 857-72.
Greenwood D. Conflicts of interest: the genesis of synthetic antimalarial agents in peace and war. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995;36(5):857-72.
Greenwood, D. (1995). Conflicts of interest: the genesis of synthetic antimalarial agents in peace and war. The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 36(5), pp. 857-72.
Greenwood D. Conflicts of Interest: the Genesis of Synthetic Antimalarial Agents in Peace and War. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1995;36(5):857-72. PubMed PMID: 8626269.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Conflicts of interest: the genesis of synthetic antimalarial agents in peace and war. A1 - Greenwood,D, PY - 1995/11/1/pubmed PY - 1995/11/1/medline PY - 1995/11/1/entrez SP - 857 EP - 72 JF - The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy JO - J. Antimicrob. Chemother. VL - 36 IS - 5 N2 - Malaria has had an enormous impact on human history, not least in times of war. The disease has been treatable by a natural remedy, quinine, since the 17th century, but the production of synthetic antimalarial agents was first achieved in Germany in the wake of the Great War of 1914-1918, in which malaria had caused immense problems. In the 1920s research workers in the Bayer laboratories of the IG Farbenindustrie consortium developed the 8-aminoquinoline plasmoquine (the forerunner of primaquine). They went on to develop the acridine dye, atebrin (mepacrine) and the 4-aminoquinolines, Resochin (developed at the end of the Second World War in America as chloroquine) and Sontochin. British attempts to match the advances achieved by the Germans were at first unproductive, partly because collaboration between academic and industrial organizations in the UK was beset by concerns over patent rights. However, with the outbreak of World War II, when supplies of antimalarials were scarce, ICI succeeded in the large-scale production of mepacrine (essential to prosecution of the war, particularly in the Far East) and also initiated a programme of collaborative research that eventually led to the discovery of proguanil (Paludrine); this, in its turn led to the diaminopyrimidine, pyrimethamine. A massive cooperative screening programme in the USA during World War II eventually bore fruit in the realization of the therapeutic potential of chloroquine, and in the later development of amodiaquine and primaquine. Some of this work also influenced the subsequent discovery of mefloquine and halofantrine at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. SN - 0305-7453 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8626269/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jac/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jac/36.5.857 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -