Endoscopic stenting of gallbladder for symptomatic cholelithiasis in patients with end-stage liver disease awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation.Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Mar; 91(3):595-8.AJ
Cholecystectomy in patients with advanced cirrhosis is associated with excessive morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic cholelithiasis in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation poses unique management issues. Three patients with end-stage liver disease, severe enough to warrant hepatic transplantation, developed symptoms and complications of cholelithiasis requiring intervention. Each underwent placement of a biliary stent from gallbladder to duodenum at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. In each case, biliary symptoms and complications ceased after stent placement. Two patients remained symptom-free until they underwent successful liver transplantation, and the third awaits transplant and is currently free of symptoms of cholelithiasis. Endoscopic placement of gallbladder stents represents a temporizing alternative for the management of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis awaiting hepatic transplantation.