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The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China.
Cancer 1996; 77(12):2449-57C

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The divergent incidence patterns of gastric cardia and distal stomach cancer may suggest different etiologies. This study examined the role of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and green tea consumption as risk factors for carcinoma by anatomic subsite of stomach.

METHODS

Newly-diagnosed stomach carcinoma patients (n = 1124) and frequency-matched population controls (n = 1451) were interviewed in person. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models.

RESULTS

Excess risks associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were observed largely among men. The adjusted ORs for all stomach cancer combined were 1.35 (CI: 1.06-1.71) for current smokers, and 1.26 (CI: 0.86-1.84) for ex-smokers. For tumors of the distal stomach, statistically significant positive dose-response trends were found for the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the duration and pack-years of smoking, and inverse trends for years of stopped smoking. For tumors of the gastric cardia, however, a monotonic association was found only for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (P=0.06). Alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of cardia cancer, while a moderate excess risk of distal stomach cancer (OR: 1.55; CI: 1.07-2.26) was observed among heavy alcohol drinkers. Green tea drinking was inversely associated with risk of stomach cancer arising from either subsite, with ORs of 0.77 (CI: 0.52-1.13) among female heavy drinkers, and 0.76 (CI: 0.55-1.27) among male heavy drinkers.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings provide further evidence that cigarette smoking and, possibly, alcohol consumption increase the risk of stomach carcinoma, notably of the distal segment. An inverse association with green tea drinking was also observed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University, School of Public Health, New York, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8640692

Citation

Ji, B T., et al. "The Influence of Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Green Tea Consumption On the Risk of Carcinoma of the Cardia and Distal Stomach in Shanghai, China." Cancer, vol. 77, no. 12, 1996, pp. 2449-57.
Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, et al. The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer. 1996;77(12):2449-57.
Ji, B. T., Chow, W. H., Yang, G., McLaughlin, J. K., Gao, R. N., Zheng, W., ... Gao, Y. T. (1996). The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer, 77(12), pp. 2449-57.
Ji BT, et al. The Influence of Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol, and Green Tea Consumption On the Risk of Carcinoma of the Cardia and Distal Stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer. 1996 Jun 15;77(12):2449-57. PubMed PMID: 8640692.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. AU - Ji,B T, AU - Chow,W H, AU - Yang,G, AU - McLaughlin,J K, AU - Gao,R N, AU - Zheng,W, AU - Shu,X O, AU - Jin,F, AU - Fraumeni,J F,Jr AU - Gao,Y T, PY - 1996/6/15/pubmed PY - 2000/6/20/medline PY - 1996/6/15/entrez SP - 2449 EP - 57 JF - Cancer JO - Cancer VL - 77 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: The divergent incidence patterns of gastric cardia and distal stomach cancer may suggest different etiologies. This study examined the role of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and green tea consumption as risk factors for carcinoma by anatomic subsite of stomach. METHODS: Newly-diagnosed stomach carcinoma patients (n = 1124) and frequency-matched population controls (n = 1451) were interviewed in person. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Excess risks associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were observed largely among men. The adjusted ORs for all stomach cancer combined were 1.35 (CI: 1.06-1.71) for current smokers, and 1.26 (CI: 0.86-1.84) for ex-smokers. For tumors of the distal stomach, statistically significant positive dose-response trends were found for the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the duration and pack-years of smoking, and inverse trends for years of stopped smoking. For tumors of the gastric cardia, however, a monotonic association was found only for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (P=0.06). Alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of cardia cancer, while a moderate excess risk of distal stomach cancer (OR: 1.55; CI: 1.07-2.26) was observed among heavy alcohol drinkers. Green tea drinking was inversely associated with risk of stomach cancer arising from either subsite, with ORs of 0.77 (CI: 0.52-1.13) among female heavy drinkers, and 0.76 (CI: 0.55-1.27) among male heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that cigarette smoking and, possibly, alcohol consumption increase the risk of stomach carcinoma, notably of the distal segment. An inverse association with green tea drinking was also observed. SN - 0008-543X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8640692/The_influence_of_cigarette_smoking_alcohol_and_green_tea_consumption_on_the_risk_of_carcinoma_of_the_cardia_and_distal_stomach_in_Shanghai_China_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/6892 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -