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Energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults in affluent societies: an analysis of 319 doubly-labelled water measurements.
Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50(2):93-7EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To describe the relationship between graded levels of obesity and free-living energy expenditure in men and women in affluent societies.

DESIGN

Analysis of 319 measurements of energy expenditure in adults aged 18-64 years. The variables analysed were: total energy expenditure (TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water method); measured basal metabolic rate (BMR); activity energy expenditure (AEE, derived as TEE-BMR); and physical activity level (PAL, derived as TEE/BMR). Results were analysed according to four categories of body mass index (BMI): < 25.0, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-35.0 and > 35.0 kg/m2.

RESULTS

TEE increased steadily with increasing BMI (9.5 to 13.5 MJ/d in women, 12.9 to 17.5 MJ/d in men, ANOVA, P < 0.0001 for both sexes). BMR also increased (5.7 to 8.2 MJ/d in women, 7.2 to 11.6 MJ/d in men, P < 0.0001 for both). AEE increased steadily in women (3.8 to 5.3 MJ/d, P < 0.0003), but in men increased up to the third BMI category (5.7 to 7.5 MJ/d, n.s.) and then declined in the most obese group (5.9 MJ/d, n.s.). The increases in energy expenditure were not in direct proportion to body weight since, when expressed per kg, both TEE and AEE declined significantly with increasing BMI. PAL remained quite constant across the three lowest BMI groups, indicating similar levels of physical activity. There was a non-significant decrease in PAL in the most obese men and women.

CONCLUSIONS

This analysis confirms that habitual energy expenditure is substantially and progressively raised in obesity. It contradicts the claim, based on self-reported food intake, that obesity develops and is maintained in spite of very low levels of energy intake. The analysis suggests that, except in massive obesity, patterns of physical activity are quite similar at different levels of BMI. This does not exclude the possibility that an inactive lifestyle may be an important general risk factor for the development of obesity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

MRC Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

8641251

Citation

Prentice, A M., et al. "Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Adults in Affluent Societies: an Analysis of 319 Doubly-labelled Water Measurements." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 2, 1996, pp. 93-7.
Prentice AM, Black AE, Coward WA, et al. Energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults in affluent societies: an analysis of 319 doubly-labelled water measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(2):93-7.
Prentice, A. M., Black, A. E., Coward, W. A., & Cole, T. J. (1996). Energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults in affluent societies: an analysis of 319 doubly-labelled water measurements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 50(2), pp. 93-7.
Prentice AM, et al. Energy Expenditure in Overweight and Obese Adults in Affluent Societies: an Analysis of 319 Doubly-labelled Water Measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(2):93-7. PubMed PMID: 8641251.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults in affluent societies: an analysis of 319 doubly-labelled water measurements. AU - Prentice,A M, AU - Black,A E, AU - Coward,W A, AU - Cole,T J, PY - 1996/2/1/pubmed PY - 1996/2/1/medline PY - 1996/2/1/entrez SP - 93 EP - 7 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 50 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between graded levels of obesity and free-living energy expenditure in men and women in affluent societies. DESIGN: Analysis of 319 measurements of energy expenditure in adults aged 18-64 years. The variables analysed were: total energy expenditure (TEE, assessed by the doubly-labelled water method); measured basal metabolic rate (BMR); activity energy expenditure (AEE, derived as TEE-BMR); and physical activity level (PAL, derived as TEE/BMR). Results were analysed according to four categories of body mass index (BMI): < 25.0, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-35.0 and > 35.0 kg/m2. RESULTS: TEE increased steadily with increasing BMI (9.5 to 13.5 MJ/d in women, 12.9 to 17.5 MJ/d in men, ANOVA, P < 0.0001 for both sexes). BMR also increased (5.7 to 8.2 MJ/d in women, 7.2 to 11.6 MJ/d in men, P < 0.0001 for both). AEE increased steadily in women (3.8 to 5.3 MJ/d, P < 0.0003), but in men increased up to the third BMI category (5.7 to 7.5 MJ/d, n.s.) and then declined in the most obese group (5.9 MJ/d, n.s.). The increases in energy expenditure were not in direct proportion to body weight since, when expressed per kg, both TEE and AEE declined significantly with increasing BMI. PAL remained quite constant across the three lowest BMI groups, indicating similar levels of physical activity. There was a non-significant decrease in PAL in the most obese men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms that habitual energy expenditure is substantially and progressively raised in obesity. It contradicts the claim, based on self-reported food intake, that obesity develops and is maintained in spite of very low levels of energy intake. The analysis suggests that, except in massive obesity, patterns of physical activity are quite similar at different levels of BMI. This does not exclude the possibility that an inactive lifestyle may be an important general risk factor for the development of obesity. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8641251/Energy_expenditure_in_overweight_and_obese_adults_in_affluent_societies:_an_analysis_of_319_doubly_labelled_water_measurements_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/obesity.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -