Role of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in xenobiotic activation. II. Biological effects resulting from the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-accelerated oxidation of the benzene metabolite 1,4-hydroquinone.Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Mar; 49(3):412-21.MP
Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD)-accelerated oxidation of the benzene metabolite 1,4-hydroquinone (HQ) results in the enhanced formation of semiquinone anion radicals, electrophilic 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and H202. We selected bone marrow stromal cells and phiX-174 double stranded plasmid DNA as model systems to investigate the cytotoxicity and DNA cleaving activity of the Cu/Zn-SOD-mediated activation of HQ. The addition of either Cu/Zn-SOD or Min-SOD to the primary bone marrow stromal cell cultures significantly enhanced HQ-induced cytotoxicity, which could be completely prevented by adding reduced glutathione (GSH) or dithiothreitol but not be adding catalase. Incubation of the plasmid DNA with the HQ/Cu/Zn-SOD system resulted in the induction of single- as well as double-strand breaks, which could be inhibited by catalase and the Cu(I) chelators, bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS) and GSH. Although Mn-SOD could enhance HQ-induced cytotoxicity to stromal cells, the activation of HQ by Mn-SOD did not contribute to the induction of DNA strand breaks. Similar to the HQ/Cu(II) and H202/Cu(II) systems, the DNA strand breaks mediated by HQ/Cu/Zn-SOD could not be effectively inhibited by the hydroxyl radical scavengers, including dimethylsulfoxide, mannitol, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, but could be protected by sodium azide. Low-temperature electron spin resonance experiments showed that incubation of Cu/Znu-SOD with HQ resulted in the release of copper from the Cu/Zn-SOD, which could be prevented by catalase. Alpha-(4-Pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN)/spin-trapping studies demonstrated that the interaction of HQ with Cu/Zn-SOD, but not with Mn-SOD, resulted in the significant formation of POBN-CH3 adduct in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide, suggesting the production of hydroxyl radical or its equivalent from this enzyme/xenobiotic interaction. The formation of the POBN-CH3 adduct from the HQ/Cu/Zn-SOD could be inhibited by catalase, BCS or GSH, indicating the important role for H202 and Cu(I) in the production of reactive oxygen species. Addition of human myeloperoxidase to the HQ/Cu/Zn-SOD synergistically enhanced the formation of BQ from HQ. This enhancement could be abolished by catalase. Taken together, these results demonstrate that activation of HQ by either Cu/Zn-SOD or Mn-SOD results in cytotoxicity to primary bone marrow stromal cells through the formation of electrophilic BQ. Interaction of HQ with Cu/Zn-SOD causes oxidative damage to Cu/Zn-SOD, leading to the release of copper from the enzyme. The further reaction between the released copper and H202 generates reactive oxygen species that participate in the induction of strand breaks in plasmid DNA. The H202 generated from the Cu/Zn-SOD-accelerated oxidation of HQ can also be utilized by myeloperoxidase resulting in additional conversion of HQ to BQ.