[Indications, technique and risks in bone marrow transplantation in adulthood].Praxis (Bern 1994). 1996 Mar 19; 85(12):378-86.P
The option of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) significantly improved prognosis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies aged less than 50 years. Allogeneic BMT using the marrow of an HLA-identical family member still provides the most effective method of BMT. Conventional indications for this form of BMT are chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute leukemias presenting with adverse risk factors, myelodysplastic syndromes and severe aplastic anemia. If performed early in the disease course (e.g. during the chronic phase of CML or first remission of acute leukemia and MDS) allogeneic BMT cures 50 to 60% of patients. About 20% die of therapy related complications, e.g. graft versus host disease (GvHD), fatal infections or venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and about 20% of patients succumb to relapse of their hematologic disorder. 80% presenting with severe aplastic anemia can be cured, if allogeneic BMT is performed soon after diagnosis without previous immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions. BMT with the marrow of a matched unrelated donor or autologous BMT are increasingly used as alternative procedures. A rate of lethal complications as high as 50% hinders rapid extension of BMT with unrelated donors. Therefore, this form of BMT should be restricted to young patients with leukemias, who cannot achieve long-term remission with conventional chemotherapy (in case of acute leukemias) or alpha-interferon (in case of CML). Reconstitution of hematopoiesis is more rapid after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) compared with autologous BMT. Therefore, PBSCT will replace autologous BMT in most cases. Most favourable results of PBSCT have been reported in patients with malignant lymphomas after relapse or inferior response to primary induction therapy. Due to the higher relapse rate autologous BMT is inferior to allogeneic BMT in leukemia patients. Trials are required to clarify the potential role of myeloablative therapy with stem cell support in the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Many of the preliminary results already published are unsatisfactory and data of larger trials are still lacking. Therefore, BMT or PBSCT cannot be recommended generally for the therapy of patients with solid tumors.