Release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 [7-36 amide]), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin in response to oral glucose after upper and lower intestinal resections.Z Gastroenterol. 1996 Mar; 34(3):159-66.ZG
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1[7-36 amide]) is an incretin hormone primarily synthesized in the lower gut (ileum, colon/rectum). Nevertheless, there is an early increment in plasma GLP-1 immediately after ingesting glucose or mixed meals, before nutrients have entered GLP-1 rich intestinal regions. The responsible signalling pathway between the upper and lower gut is not clear. It was the aim of this study to see, whether small intestinal resection or colonectomy changes GLP-1[7-36 amide] release after oral glucose. In eight healthy controls, in seven patients with inactive Crohn's disease (no surgery), in nine patients each after primarily jejunal or ileal small intestinal resections, and in six colonectomized patients not different in age (p = 0.10), body-mass-index (p = 0.24), waist-hip-ratio (p = 0.43), and HbA1c (p = 0.22), oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g) were performed in the fasting state. GLP-1[7-36 amide], insulin C-peptide, GIP and glucagon (specific (RIAs) were measured over 240 min.
Repeated measures ANOVA, t-test (significance: p < 0.05). A clear and early (peak: 15-30 min) GLP-1[7-36 amide] response was observed in all subjects, without any significant difference between gut-resected and control groups (p = 0.95). There were no significant differences in oral glucose tolerance (p = 0.21) or in the suppression of pancreatic glucagon (p = 0.36). Colonectomized patients had a higher insulin (p = 0.011) and C-peptide (p = 0.0023) response in comparison to all other groups. GIP responses also were higher in the colonectomized patients (p = 0.0005). Inactive Crohn's disease and resections of the small intestine as well as proctocolectomy did not change overall GLP-1[7-36 amide] responses and especially not the early increment after oral glucose. This may indicate release of GLP-1[7-36 amide] after oral glucose from the small number of GLP-1[7-36 amide] producing L-cells in the upper gut rather than from the main source in the ileum, colon and rectum. Colonectomized patients are characterized by insulin hypersecretion, which in combination with their normal oral glucose tolerance possibly indicates a reduced insulin sensitivity in this patient group. GIP may play a role in mediating insulin hypersecretion in these patients.