Weight gain and increased concentrations of receptor proteins for tumor necrosis factor after patients with symptomatic HIV infection received fortified nutrition support.J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Jun; 96(6):565-9.JA
To determine whether certain nutrients and dietary factors act as modulators of the immune system and improve the nutritional status of immunocompromised patients.
Controlled, double-blind, crossover phase trials of the effects of a fortified formula in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients consumed a control formula for 4 months and a study formula for 4 months.
Ten men with symptomatic HIV infection who were following stable medication regimens and had no malignancies, mycobacteriosis, or additional virus infection requiring systemic treatment.
Formula fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (1.8 g/day), arginine (7.8 g/day), and RNA (0.75 g/day) and a standard formula.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Nutritional status determined by anthropometric, bioelectrical, biochemical, and dietary assessment; energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry; disease progression; CD4 lymphocyte counts; HIV p24 antigen plasma concentrations; tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor proteins; and compliance control parameters.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED
Student's t tests for paired and unpaired data.
Fortified nutrition resulted in a weight gain (+ 2.9 kg/4 months vs -0.5 kg/4 months with the control formula, P < .05), an incorporation of eicosaenoic acid into erythrocyte cell membranes (+ 47% of baseline values, P < .05), and increased plasma arginine concentrations (96.8 +/- 45.1 vs 51.8 +/- 20.9 mumol/L, P < .01). The serum concentrations of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) proteins increased during the study period (sTNFR 55 = + 0.23 vs -0.40 ng/mL, P < .001; sTNFR 75 = + 0.90 vs -0.36 ng/mL, P < .01), whereas no changes in CD4+ lymphocyte counts were observed.
Increasing dietary intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-arginine, and RNA increased body weight, possibly by modulating the negative effects of TNF.