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[A 78-year-old man with young onset parkinsonism and sudden death].
No To Shinkei. 1996 May; 48(5):487-95.NT

Abstract

We report a right-handed 78-year-old man with early onset parkinsonism. The patient had an onset of micrographia at 23 years of the age in 1939. Seven years later he started to drag his right foot, and at 38 years of age, he walked with small steps with festination. Tremor was also present in his right hand. His daily life was independent as a otorhinolaryngologist. He visited our clinic on March 24, 1977 when he was mentally sound and showed mild parkinsonism consisting of masked face, stooped posture, small step gait, bradykinesia, and right side dominant rigidity and tremor. He showed good response to trihexyphenidyl and amantadine HCl. Two month later, he developed dyskinesia and some worsening of parkinsonism, and was admitted to our hospital for the first time. He was treated with 400 to 600 mg/day of levodopa/ carbidopa. He showed marked improvement, however, dyskinesia remained in his mouth. He was doing well until 77 years of age (June of 1993) when he developed hallucination and motor fluctuations. He was admitted again to our hospital on June 22, 1993. On admission, he was alert and appeared mentally sound. However, Hasegawa dementia scale was 18/30. Upward gaze was slightly restricted (3/5). Voice was somewhat small but no masking was noted. His posture was stooped and the gait was of small step. Dyskinesia was noted during walk. No rigidity nor tremor was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were lost but no sensory loss or motor weakness was noted. Routine laboratory studies were unremarkable. A cranial CT scan revealed only mild to moderate cortical atrophy. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were within normal limits, however, motor action potentials could not be obtained with stimulation to the right common peroneal nerve. He was treated with 600 mg/day of levodopa with carbidopa, 100 mg of amantadine HCl, 300 mg of Dops, and 25 mg of tiapride. He continued to show motor fluctuations, and was discharged on July 23, 1993. Since then his motor functions had become progressively worse with frequent falls, but he was still able to walk without support. On October 3 of 1994, he went to bed as usual. On the next morning, he was found dead in his bed at 9: 30. The patient was discussed in neurological CPC, and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had young-onset Parkinson's disease with Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra. Opinions were divided between Parkinson's disease and Lewy body negative young onset parkinsonism. Postmortem examination revealed obstruction of the trachea by aspirated foods, and the cause of death appeared to have been suffocation by the foods. Macroscopically, the external appearance of the brain was unremarkable except for slight frontal atrophy. The substantia nigra showed depigmentation in the lateral part, but the pigmentation of the medial part was well preserved. Upon histologic examination, the number of pigmented neurons in the dorsomedial part was well preserved. In the lateral part, pigmented neurons were well preserved in the dorsal area, however, in the ventral area, only non-pigmented neurons were seen; they appeared to be neurons in the pars reticulata. No gliosis was seen in any of the nigral areas. No Lewy bodies were seen in the remaining neurons. So-called immature neurons with rounded shape without neuromelanin could not be detected. The locus coeruleus neurons were well preserved. The putamen and the other basal ganglia structures were also intact. Slight myelin pallor was noted in the subcortical white matter, however, otherwise cerebral cortices were normal. The histology of this patient is unique in that only the ventrolateral part of the substantia nigra showed abnormal finding consisting of lack of pigmented neurons without gliosis. It is not clear whether the nigral change represents degeneration or a congenital "hypoplasia'. To our knowledge, such a unique pathology of the substantia nigra has not been reported in the literature. Our patient ma

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Clinical Conference
English Abstract
Journal Article

Language

jpn

PubMed ID

8672309

Citation

Miyasaka, H, et al. "[A 78-year-old Man With Young Onset Parkinsonism and Sudden Death]." No to Shinkei = Brain and Nerve, vol. 48, no. 5, 1996, pp. 487-95.
Miyasaka H, Mori H, Saikawa T, et al. [A 78-year-old man with young onset parkinsonism and sudden death]. No To Shinkei. 1996;48(5):487-95.
Miyasaka, H., Mori, H., Saikawa, T., Shirai, T., Kondo, T., Imai, H., & Mizuno, Y. (1996). [A 78-year-old man with young onset parkinsonism and sudden death]. No to Shinkei = Brain and Nerve, 48(5), 487-95.
Miyasaka H, et al. [A 78-year-old Man With Young Onset Parkinsonism and Sudden Death]. No To Shinkei. 1996;48(5):487-95. PubMed PMID: 8672309.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [A 78-year-old man with young onset parkinsonism and sudden death]. AU - Miyasaka,H, AU - Mori,H, AU - Saikawa,T, AU - Shirai,T, AU - Kondo,T, AU - Imai,H, AU - Mizuno,Y, PY - 1996/5/1/pubmed PY - 1996/5/1/medline PY - 1996/5/1/entrez SP - 487 EP - 95 JF - No to shinkei = Brain and nerve JO - No To Shinkei VL - 48 IS - 5 N2 - We report a right-handed 78-year-old man with early onset parkinsonism. The patient had an onset of micrographia at 23 years of the age in 1939. Seven years later he started to drag his right foot, and at 38 years of age, he walked with small steps with festination. Tremor was also present in his right hand. His daily life was independent as a otorhinolaryngologist. He visited our clinic on March 24, 1977 when he was mentally sound and showed mild parkinsonism consisting of masked face, stooped posture, small step gait, bradykinesia, and right side dominant rigidity and tremor. He showed good response to trihexyphenidyl and amantadine HCl. Two month later, he developed dyskinesia and some worsening of parkinsonism, and was admitted to our hospital for the first time. He was treated with 400 to 600 mg/day of levodopa/ carbidopa. He showed marked improvement, however, dyskinesia remained in his mouth. He was doing well until 77 years of age (June of 1993) when he developed hallucination and motor fluctuations. He was admitted again to our hospital on June 22, 1993. On admission, he was alert and appeared mentally sound. However, Hasegawa dementia scale was 18/30. Upward gaze was slightly restricted (3/5). Voice was somewhat small but no masking was noted. His posture was stooped and the gait was of small step. Dyskinesia was noted during walk. No rigidity nor tremor was noted. Deep tendon reflexes were lost but no sensory loss or motor weakness was noted. Routine laboratory studies were unremarkable. A cranial CT scan revealed only mild to moderate cortical atrophy. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were within normal limits, however, motor action potentials could not be obtained with stimulation to the right common peroneal nerve. He was treated with 600 mg/day of levodopa with carbidopa, 100 mg of amantadine HCl, 300 mg of Dops, and 25 mg of tiapride. He continued to show motor fluctuations, and was discharged on July 23, 1993. Since then his motor functions had become progressively worse with frequent falls, but he was still able to walk without support. On October 3 of 1994, he went to bed as usual. On the next morning, he was found dead in his bed at 9: 30. The patient was discussed in neurological CPC, and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had young-onset Parkinson's disease with Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra. Opinions were divided between Parkinson's disease and Lewy body negative young onset parkinsonism. Postmortem examination revealed obstruction of the trachea by aspirated foods, and the cause of death appeared to have been suffocation by the foods. Macroscopically, the external appearance of the brain was unremarkable except for slight frontal atrophy. The substantia nigra showed depigmentation in the lateral part, but the pigmentation of the medial part was well preserved. Upon histologic examination, the number of pigmented neurons in the dorsomedial part was well preserved. In the lateral part, pigmented neurons were well preserved in the dorsal area, however, in the ventral area, only non-pigmented neurons were seen; they appeared to be neurons in the pars reticulata. No gliosis was seen in any of the nigral areas. No Lewy bodies were seen in the remaining neurons. So-called immature neurons with rounded shape without neuromelanin could not be detected. The locus coeruleus neurons were well preserved. The putamen and the other basal ganglia structures were also intact. Slight myelin pallor was noted in the subcortical white matter, however, otherwise cerebral cortices were normal. The histology of this patient is unique in that only the ventrolateral part of the substantia nigra showed abnormal finding consisting of lack of pigmented neurons without gliosis. It is not clear whether the nigral change represents degeneration or a congenital "hypoplasia'. To our knowledge, such a unique pathology of the substantia nigra has not been reported in the literature. Our patient ma SN - 0006-8969 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/8672309/[A_78_year_old_man_with_young_onset_parkinsonism_and_sudden_death]_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/parkinsonsdisease.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -