[Consumption, dietary habits and nutritional status of the Reus (IX) population. Evolution of food consumption, energy and nutrient intake and relationship with the socioeconomic and cultural level, 1983-1993].Med Clin (Barc). 1996 Feb 10; 106(5):174-9.MC
Mediterranean diet (a greater intake of olive oil, cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables), is related to a lower prevalence of some associated diseases. The aim of the study was to observe in a Spanish population the evolution of dietary intake, whether there could be changes in the contribution of different kinds of food in energy intake, and the importance of socioeconomic and cultural factors which could influence this phenomenon.
Dietary intake was evaluated using the 24 hours recall method in a representative sample (n = 941, age range = 10-69) of a Reus population (Spain). This longitudinal study consisted of 70% of the sample studied in 1983 using identical methodology.
From 1983 to 1993, we observed a significant increment of lactic derivatives (50.0%), vegetables (12.5%) and fruit intake (10.6%), and a significant decrease in tubercles (-56%), eggs (-15.6%), sugars (-13.0%), milk (-9.2%), and cereal (-7.6%) intake. Meat, fish, and visible fat intake remained unchanged. The intake of the 9 groups of food was different for men and women along this time period. We observed an increment in animal sources to our diet, primarily because of an increment in lactic derivative intake and a decrease in tubercles intake. Differences observed in 1983 between social classes related to different kinds of nutrients had nearly disappeared in 1993. Medium and high social classes followed very similar diets. However, the group of population with lowest socioeconomic status had a lower intake of energy and nutrients.
Our diet consisted of the main characteristics of the typical mediterranean diet, although we observed a decrease in cereal intake and an increase in food of animal origin. Differences observed in 1983 related to dietary habits and nutritional profile between medium and high social classes, disappeared in 1993. However, there exists a small group of people of low social class which had a lower intake of energy and other nutrients.